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      A Review on Antidiabetic Properties of Indian Mangrove Plants with Reference to Island Ecosystem

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          Abstract

          Mangrove ecosystem has many potential species that are traditionally used by the coastal communities for their traditional cure for health ailments as evidenced by their extensive uses to treat hepatic disorders, diabetes, gastrointestinal disorders, anti-inflammation, anticancer, and skin diseases, etc. In recent times, the diabetes mellitus (DM), a serious physiological disorder all over the world, occur due to the relative or complete deficiency of insulin in the body, characterized by an abnormally high blood glucose level. India has a rich traditional knowledge on plant-based drug formulations that are protective and curative for many health ailments. In this context, we aimed to compile the works done on the antidiabetic activities of mangrove species from Indian coastal regions especially on Andaman and Nicobar Islands as well as some recent works reported from other countries. A total of 126 published articles and 31 mangrove species related pieces of information were gathered with reference to antidiabetic properties of mangroves. This review summarizes the chemical structures, molecular formula, molecular weight, and their biological activities with an aspiration that it might be helpful for the future bioprospecting industries who are interested in develop the natural drugs for DM.

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          Drug discovery from plant sources: An integrated approach

          New drug discovery is facing serious challenges due to reduction in number of new drug approvals coupled with exorbitant rising cost. Advent of combinatorial chemistry provided new hope of higher success rates of new chemical entities (NCEs); however, even this scientific development has failed to improve the success rate in new drug discovery. This scenario has prompted us to come out with a novel approach of integrated drug discovery, where Ayurvedic wisdom can synergize with drug discovery from plant sources. Initial steps in new drug discovery involve identification of NCEs, which can be either sourced through chemical synthesis or can be isolated from natural products through biological activity guided fractionation. The sources of many of the new drugs and active ingredients of medicines are derived from natural products. The starting point for plant-based new drug discovery should be identification of the right candidate plants by applying Ayurvedic wisdom, traditional documented use, tribal non-documented use, and exhaustive literature search. Frequency analysis of the ingredients of the ancient documented formulations and analysis of their Ayurvedic attributes may provide an in-depth idea of the predominance of particular Ayurvedic characteristics based on which appropriate candidate plants may be selected for bioactivity-based fractionation. The integration of Ayurvedic wisdom with drug discovery also brings the need for a paradigm shift in the extraction process from sequential to parallel extraction. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the identified plant may lead to standardized extract or isolated bioactive druggable compound as the new drug. This integrated approach would lead to saving of cost and time, coupled with enhanced success rate in drug discovery.
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            Monocyclic Phenolic Acids; Hydroxy- and Polyhydroxybenzoic Acids: Occurrence and Recent Bioactivity Studies

            Among the wide diversity of naturally occurring phenolic acids, at least 30 hydroxy- and polyhydroxybenzoic acids have been reported in the last 10 years to have biological activities. The chemical structures, natural occurrence throughout the plant, algal, bacterial, fungal and animal kingdoms, and recently described bioactivities of these phenolic and polyphenolic acids are reviewed to illustrate their wide distribution, biological and ecological importance, and potential as new leads for the development of pharmaceutical and agricultural products to improve human health and nutrition.
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              Herbal medicine research and global health: an ethical analysis.

              Governments, international agencies and corporations are increasingly investing in traditional herbal medicine research. Yet little literature addresses ethical challenges in this research. In this paper, we apply concepts in a comprehensive ethical framework for clinical research to international traditional herbal medicine research. We examine in detail three key, underappreciated dimensions of the ethical framework in which particularly difficult questions arise for international herbal medicine research: social value, scientific validity and favourable risk-benefit ratio. Significant challenges exist in determining shared concepts of social value, scientific validity and favourable risk-benefit ratio across international research collaborations. However, we argue that collaborative partnership, including democratic deliberation, offers the context and process by which many of the ethical challenges in international herbal medicine research can, and should be, resolved. By "cross-training" investigators, and investing in safety-monitoring infrastructure, the issues identified by this comprehensive framework can promote ethically sound international herbal medicine research that contributes to global health.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
                Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
                ECAM
                Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine : eCAM
                Hindawi
                1741-427X
                1741-4288
                2019
                5 December 2019
                5 December 2019
                : 2019
                Affiliations
                Integrated Island Management Unit, Futuristic Research Division, National Centre for Sustainable Coastal Management, Ministry of Environment, Forests & Climate Change, Government of India, Chennai, Tamil Nadu 600025, India
                Author notes

                Guest Editor: Jayanta Kumar Patra

                Article
                10.1155/2019/4305148
                6915161
                Copyright © 2019 V. Sachithanandam et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Funding
                Funded by: Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change
                Funded by: World Bank under the India ICZM Project
                Categories
                Review Article

                Complementary & Alternative medicine

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