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      Efficacy of the First Step to Success Intervention for Students with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

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          Most cited references 19

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          3-year follow-up of the NIMH MTA study.

          In the intent-to-treat analysis of the Multimodal Treatment Study of Children With ADHD (MTA), the effects of medication management (MedMgt), behavior therapy (Beh), their combination (Comb), and usual community care (CC) differed at 14 and 24 months due to superiority of treatments that used the MTA medication algorithm (Comb+MedMgt) over those that did not (Beh+CC). This report examines 36-month outcomes, 2 years after treatment by the study ended. For primary outcome measures (attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder [ADHD] and oppositional defiant disorder [ODD] symptoms, social skills, reading scores, impairment, and diagnostic status), mixed-effects regression models and orthogonal contrasts examined 36-month outcomes. At 3 years, 485 of the original 579 subjects (83.8%) participated in the follow-up, now at ages 10 to 13 years, (mean 11.9 years). In contrast to the significant advantage of MedMgt+Comb over Beh+CC for ADHD symptoms at 14 and 24 months, treatment groups did not differ significantly on any measure at 36 months. The percentage of children taking medication >50% of the time changed between 14 and 36 months across the initial treatment groups: Beh significantly increased (14% to 45%), MedMed+Comb significantly decreased (91% to 71%), and CC remained constant (60%-62%). Regardless of their treatment use changes, all of the groups showed symptom improvement over baseline. Notably, initial symptom severity, sex (male), comorbidity, public assistance, and parental psychopathology (ADHD) did not moderate children's 36-month treatment responses, but these factors predicted worse outcomes over 36 months, regardless of original treatment assignment. By 36 months, the earlier advantage of having had 14 months of the medication algorithm was no longer apparent, possibly due to age-related decline in ADHD symptoms, changes in medication management intensity, starting or stopping medications altogether, or other factors not yet evaluated.
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            Evidence-based psychosocial treatments for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

            Pelham, Wheeler, and Chronis (1998) reviewed the treatment literature on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and concluded behavioral parent training (BPT) and behavioral classroom management (BCM) were well-established treatments for children with ADHD. This review updates and extends the finding of the prior review. Studies conducted since the 1998 review were identified and coded based on standard criteria, and effect sizes were calculated where appropriate. The review reinforces the conclusions of Pelham, Wheeler, and Chronis regarding BPT and BCM. Further, the review shows that intensive peer-focused behavioral interventions implemented in recreational settings (e.g., summer programs) are also well-established. The results of this update are discussed in the context of the existing treatment literature on ADHD. Implications for practice guidelines are suggested, as are directions for future research.
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              Comorbidity in ADHD: implications for research, practice, and DSM-V.

              Since the introduction of DSM-III/III-R, clinicians and investigators have shown increasing interest in the study of conditions comorbid with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Better understanding ADHD comorbidity patterns is needed to guide treatment, research and future classification approaches. The ADHD literature from the past 15 years was reviewed to (1) explore the most prevalent patterns of ADHD comorbidity; (2) examine the correlates and longitudinal predictors of comorbidity; and (3) determine the extent to which comorbid patterns convey unique information concerning ADHD etiology, treatment and outcomes. To identify potential new syndromes, the authors examined comorbid patterns based on eight validational criteria. The largest available body of literature concerned the comorbidity with ADHD and conduct disorder/aggression, with a substantially smaller amount of data concerning other comorbid conditions. In many areas the literature was sparse, and pertinent questions concerning comorbidity patterns remain unexplored. Nonetheless available data warrant the delineation of two new subclassifications of ADHD: (1) ADHD aggressive subtype, and (2) ADHD, anxious subtype. Additional studies of the frequency of comorbidity and associated factors are greatly needed to include studies of differential effects of treatment of children with various comorbid ADHD disorders, as well as of ADHD children who differ on etiological factors.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                School Mental Health
                School Mental Health
                Springer Nature
                1866-2625
                1866-2633
                March 2009
                January 8 2009
                March 2009
                : 1
                : 1
                : 37-48
                Article
                10.1007/s12310-008-9003-4
                © 2009
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