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      Global Habitat Suitability of Spodoptera frugiperda (JE Smith) (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae): Key Parasitoids Considered for Its Biological Control

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          Abstract

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          The fall armyworm (FAW), Spodoptera frugiperda has now become a pest of global importance. Its introduction and detection in Africa in 2016, and subsequent introduction and spread into Asia and Australia, has put several millions of food producers and maize farmers at risk. Not all pest management strategies are sustainable. Biological control with the use of parasitoid wasps is one of the durable and environmentally sound options. The present study was initiated to predict the habitats of high establishment potential of key parasitoids of FAW in South America, which might prove to be effective as classical biological control agents of FAW in regions where it is an invasive species under current and future climate scenarios. The prospective parasitoids are the following: Chelonus insularis, Cotesia marginiventris, Eiphosoma laphygmae, Telenomus remus and Trichogramma pretiosum. The results demonstrate overlapping habitat suitability areas of the pest and the parasitoids, suggesting promises for biological control options for the management of FAW under current and future climate scenarios.

          Abstract

          The present study is the first modeling effort at a global scale to predict habitat suitability of fall armyworm (FAW), Spodoptera frugiperda and its key parasitoids, namely Chelonus insularis, Cotesia marginiventris, Eiphosoma laphygmae, Telenomus remus and Trichogramma pretiosum, to be considered for biological control. An adjusted procedure of a machine-learning algorithm, the maximum entropy (Maxent), was applied for the modeling experiments. Model predictions showed particularly high establishment potential of the five hymenopteran parasitoids in areas that are heavily affected by FAW (like the coastal belt of West Africa from Côte d’Ivoire (Ivory Coast) to Nigeria, the Congo basin to Eastern Africa, Eastern, Southern and Southeastern Asia and some portions of Eastern Australia) and those of potential invasion risks (western & southern Europe). These habitats can be priority sites for scaling FAW biocontrol efforts. In the context of global warming and the event of accidental FAW introduction, warmer parts of Europe are at high risk. The effect of winter on the survival and life cycle of the pest in Europe and other temperate regions of the world are discussed in this paper. Overall, the models provide pioneering information to guide decision making for biological-based medium and long-term management of FAW across the globe.

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          Most cited references 55

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          WorldClim 2: new 1-km spatial resolution climate surfaces for global land areas

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            Very high resolution interpolated climate surfaces for global land areas

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              Maximum entropy modeling of species geographic distributions

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: Academic Editor
                Journal
                Insects
                Insects
                insects
                Insects
                MDPI
                2075-4450
                24 March 2021
                April 2021
                : 12
                : 4
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Biorisk Management Facility (BIMAF), International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA-Benin), 08-01000 Cotonou, Benin; G.Goergen@ 123456cgiar.org (G.G.); M.Tamo@ 123456cgiar.org (M.T.)
                [2 ]Ecole de Gestion et de Production Végétale et Semencière (EGPVS), Université Nationale d’Agriculture (UNA), 43 Kétou, Benin
                [3 ]Plant Health Theme, International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology ( icipe), Nairobi 30772-00100, Kenya; htonnang@ 123456icipe.org (H.E.Z.T.); ssubramania@ 123456icipe.org (S.S.); ekimathi@ 123456icipe.org (E.K.); eabdel-rahman@ 123456icipe.org (E.M.A.-R.); Karl.Thunes@ 123456nibio.no (K.H.T.); sniassy@ 123456icipe.org (S.N.); sfaris@ 123456icipe.org (S.A.M.); sekesi@ 123456icipe.org (S.E.)
                [4 ]Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food and Environment (VKM), 0213 Oslo, Norway; Daniel.Flo@ 123456vkm.no
                [5 ]Department for Invertebrate Pests and Weeds in Forestry, Horticulture and Agriculture, Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research (NIBIO), NO-1431 Ås, Norway
                [6 ]Department of Integrated Pest Management, International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA-Cameroon), BP-2008 Messa-Yaounde, Cameroon; K.Fiaboe@ 123456cgiar.org
                [7 ]Global Maize Program, International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT), 1041-00621 Nairobi, Kenya; A.Bruce@ 123456cgiar.org
                [8 ]Department for Climate, Energy and Environment, Section for Environment and Food Security, Norwegian Agency for Development and Cooperation (NORAD), 0257 Oslo, Norway; May-Guri.Saethre@ 123456norad.no
                Author notes
                Article
                insects-12-00273
                10.3390/insects12040273
                8063841
                33804807
                © 2021 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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