Background: Latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) is prevalent in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. The risk of tuberculosis activation is also high. The appropriate LTBI screening and treatment is required in this population. Meanwhile, whether hemodialysis adequacy is associated with LTBI in the ESRD population is unclear. In this study, we aimed to investigate the association between hemodialysis adequacy and LTBI in ESRD patients. Methods: In the present cross-sectional study, we reviewed all outpatient-based ESRD patients in our artificial kidney room. Interferon gamma release assay (IGRA) was used for the diagnosis of LTBI. Clinical variables including nutritional adequacy (i.e., normalized protein catabolic rate, nPCR) and dialysis adequacy (i.e., Kt/V) were compared between IGRA-positive and IGRA-negative patients. Results: A total of 90 patients were enrolled, of which 20 (22.2%) had positive IGRA results using the QuantiFERON-TB method. Old fibrotic changes and nPCR (g/kg/day) were significantly different between IGRA-positive and IGRA-negative patients (both p < 0.005), while serum albumin and Kt/V were comparable ( p = 0.429 and p = 0.590, respectively). Normalized PCR remained to be significant in a multivariate logistic regression analysis (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.911 (0.861–0.963); p = 0.001). The cutoff nPCR value less than 0.87 g/kg/day had an adjusted hazard ratio of 7.74 (1.77–33.74) for predicting LTBI. Patients with nPCR value less than 0.87 g/kg/day were older and had lower serum hemoglobin, albumin, calcium concentration, and Kt/V levels than those with nPCR value greater than 0.87 g/kg/day. Conclusions: Nutritional adequacy, especially when assessing nPCR value, was associated with LTBI, while dialysis adequacy was not associated with LTBI.