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      The Implementation of Guidelines and Prognosis among Patients with Acute Coronary Syndromes Is Influenced by Physicians’ Perception of Antecedent Physical and Cognitive Status


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          Background/Aims: Physicians’ perception of antecedent physical/cognitive status may account for the suboptimal implementation of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) guidelines. Methods: In an ACS survey of all cardiac wards, physicians’ perception of antecedent physical/cognitive status was prospectively recorded and categorized as either normal, mildly impaired or significantly impaired. We examined the impact of antecedent status on the use of evidence-based medications and procedures and on mortality. Results: Of the 2,021 patients, 1,025 (51%) had ST elevation. Impaired antecedent physical/cognitive status was diagnosed in 417 patients (20.6%), more commonly among non-ST-elevation patients (26.2 vs. 15.2%). Patients with impaired physical/cognitive status, with or without ST elevation, had significantly worse baseline demographic and clinical characteristics. They less often received aspirin, clopidogrel, platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor antagonists, statins and β-adrenergic blockers, and significantly less often underwent in-hospital catheterization and revascularization. Reperfusion treatment was given significantly less frequently to ST elevation patients with impaired status (63.0% for normal vs. 50.8% and 33.3% for mildly and significantly impaired status, respectively; p = 0.001). After adjustment for differences in baseline characteristics, impaired antecedent status remained independently associated with lower use of these therapies and higher mortality rates. Conclusions: ACS guideline implementation is significantly influenced by physicians’ perception of antecedent physical/cognitive status, and thus is a crucial parameter for understanding ACS management and outcomes.

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          Most cited references 13

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          ACC/AHA guidelines for the management of patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction--executive summary. A report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines (Writing Committee to revise the 1999 guidelines for the management of patients with acute myocardial infarction).

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            Importance of functional measures in predicting mortality among older hospitalized patients.

            Measures of physical and cognitive function are strong prognostic predictors of hospital outcomes for older persons, but current risk adjustment and burden of illness assessment indices do not include these measures. To evaluate and validate the contribution of functional measures to the ability of 5 standard burden of illness indices (Charlson, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation [APACHE] II, Disease Staging, All Patient Refined Diagnosis Related Groups, and a clinician's subjective rating) in predicting 90-day and 2-year mortality among older hospitalized patients. Two prospective cohort studies. General medicine service, university teaching hospital. For the development cohort, 207 consecutive patients aged 70 years or older, and for the validation cohort, 318 comparable patients. Death within 90 days and 2 years from the index admission. In the development cohort, 29 patients (14%) and 81 patients (39%) died within 90 days and 2 years, respectively. A functional axis was developed using 3 independent risk factors: impairment in instrumental activities of daily living, Mini-Mental State Examination score of less than 20, and shortened Geriatric Depression Scale score of 7 or higher, creating low-, intermediate-, and high-risk groups with associated mortality rates of 20%, 32%, and 60%, respectively (P<.001); the C statistic for the final model was 0.69. The corresponding mortality rates in the validation cohort, in which 59 (19%) and 138 (43%) died within 90 days and 2 years, respectively, were 24%, 45%, and 60% (P<.001); the C statistic for the final model was 0.66. For each burden of illness index, the functional axis contributed significantly to the predictive ability of the model for both 90 days and 2 years. When the functional axis and each burden of illness measure were analyzed in cross-stratified format, mortality rates increased progressively from low-risk to high-risk functional groups within strata of burden of illness indices (double-gradient phenomenon). The contributions of functional and burden of illness measures were substantive and interrelated. Functional measures are strong predictors of 90-day and 2-year mortality after hospitalization. Furthermore, these measures contribute substantially to the prognostic ability of 5 burden of illness indices. Optimal risk adjustment for older hospitalized patients should incorporate functional status variables.
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              Age, clinical presentation, and outcome of acute coronary syndromes in the Euroheart acute coronary syndrome survey.

              Age is one of the most powerful determinants of prognosis in myocardial infarction, but there is comparatively little recent data across the whole spectrum of acute coronary syndromes (ACS). We examined the impact of increasing age on clinical presentation and hospital outcome in a large sample of patients with ACS. Patients (n = 10 253) from the Euroheart ACS survey in 103 hospitals in 25 countries were investigated. There was a significant inverse association between the age and the likelihood of presenting with ST-elevation. For each decade of life, the odds of presenting with ST-elevation decreased by 0.82 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.79-0.84]; P or =85 years, with no major differences across different types of admission or discharge diagnoses. Elderly ACS patients were less likely to present with ST-elevation but had substantial in-hospital mortality, yet they were markedly less intensively treated and investigated.

                Author and article information

                S. Karger AG
                May 2007
                19 February 2007
                : 107
                : 4
                : 422-428
                aDepartment of Cardiology, Rabin Medical Center, Petah Tikva, and Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, bIsraeli Center for Disease Control and cNeufeld Cardiac Research Center, Tel Hashomer, dRambam Medical Center, Haifa, and eSoroka Medical Center, Beer Sheva, Israel
                99653 Cardiology 2007;107:422–428
                © 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Page count
                Tables: 4, References: 19, Pages: 7
                Original Research


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