Western corn rootworm (WCR), Diabrotica virgifera virgifera (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), is a serious insect pest in the major corn growing areas of North America and in parts of Europe. WCR populations with resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins utilized in commercial transgenic traits have been reported, raising concerns over their continued efficacy in WCR management. Understanding the modes of action of Bt toxins is important for WCR control and resistance management. Although different classes of proteins have been identified as Bt receptors for lepidopteran insects, identification of receptors in WCR has been limited with no reports of functional validation. Our results demonstrate that heterologous expression of DvABCB1 in Sf9 and HEK293 cells conferred sensitivity to the cytotoxic effects of Cry3A toxins. The result was further validated using knockdown of DvABCB1 by RNAi which rendered WCR larvae insensitive to a Cry3A toxin. However, silencing of DvABCB2 which is highly homologous to DvABCB1 at the amino acid level, did not reduce the sensitivity of WCR larvae to a Cry3A toxin. Furthermore, our functional studies corroborate different mode-of-actions for other insecticidal proteins including Cry34Ab1/35Ab1, Cry6Aa1, and IPD072Aa against WCR. Finally, reduced expression and alternatively spliced transcripts of DvABCB1 were identified in a mCry3A-resistant strain of WCR. Our results provide the first clear demonstration of a functional receptor in the molecular mechanism of Cry3A toxicity in WCR and confirmed its role in the mechanism of resistance in a mCry3A resistant strain of WCR.