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      Current Opinion on Pixantrone in the Treatment of Non-Hodgkin B-Cell Lymphoma

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          Not many treatment options exist for patients with relapsed or refractory (R/R) B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) in whom first- and second-line therapies were unsuccessful. This is especially true for patients with aggressive lymphomas. The innovative agent pixantrone has shown some promising results in terms of disease-free and overall survival, both in monotherapy as well as in combinations. However, recent trials (Phase III and real-world studies) reported unsatisfactory results, thereby raising the question about the role of pixantrone in the current treatment of R/R aggressive lymphomas. Nonetheless, there might still be a potential position for this drug in combinations, for use as first-line treatment of patients with cardiac dysfunction. This article summarizes the definition, structure, mechanism of action and reduced cardiotoxicity of pixantrone as well as efficacy and toxicity both in monotherapy and in combinations, as treatment for aggressive and indolent non-Hodgkin lymphomas.

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          Most cited references 63

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          Axicabtagene Ciloleucel CAR T-Cell Therapy in Refractory Large B-Cell Lymphoma

          In a phase 1 trial, axicabtagene ciloleucel (axi-cel), an autologous anti-CD19 chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy, showed efficacy in patients with refractory large B-cell lymphoma after the failure of conventional therapy.
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            Autologous bone marrow transplantation as compared with salvage chemotherapy in relapses of chemotherapy-sensitive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

            High-dose chemotherapy followed by autologous bone marrow transplantation is a therapeutic option for patients with chemotherapy-sensitive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma who have relapses. In this report we describe a prospective randomized study of such treatment. A total of 215 patients with relapses of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma were treated between July 1987 and June 1994. All patients received two courses of conventional chemotherapy. The 109 patients who had a response to chemotherapy were randomly assigned to receive four courses of chemotherapy plus radiotherapy (54 patients) or radiotherapy plus intensive chemotherapy and autologous bone marrow transplantation (55 patients). The overall rate of response to conventional chemotherapy was 58 percent; among patients with relapses after chemotherapy, the response rate was 64 percent, and among those with relapses during chemotherapy, the response rate was 21 percent. There were three deaths from toxic effects among the patients in the transplantation group, and none among those in the group receiving chemotherapy without transplantation. The two groups did not differ in terms of prognostic factors. The median follow-up time was 63 months. The response rate was 84 percent after bone marrow transplantation and 44 percent after chemotherapy without transplantation. At five years, the rate of event-free survival was 46 percent in the transplantation group and 12 percent in the group receiving chemotherapy without transplantation (P = 0.001), and the rate of overall survival was 53 and 32 percent, respectively (P = 0.038). As compared with conventional chemotherapy, treatment with high-dose chemotherapy and autologous bone marrow transplantation increases event-free and overall survival in patients with chemotherapy-sensitive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in relapse.
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              Tisagenlecleucel in Adult Relapsed or Refractory Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma

              Patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma that is refractory to primary and second-line therapies or that has relapsed after stem-cell transplantation have a poor prognosis. The chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy tisagenlecleucel targets and eliminates CD19-expressing B cells and showed efficacy against B-cell lymphomas in a single-center, phase 2a study.

                Author and article information

                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                02 March 2021
                : 17
                : 183-192
                [1 ]Division of Medical Oncology, Institute of Oncology Ljubljana , Ljubljana, 1000, Slovenia
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Barbara Jezeršek Novaković Division of Medical Oncology, Institute of Oncology Ljubljana , Zaloška 2, Ljubljana, 1000, SloveniaTel +38615879631Fax +38615879305 Email bjezersek@onko-i.si
                © 2021 Jezeršek Novaković et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                Page count
                Figures: 0, References: 67, Pages: 10
                Funded by: no funding;
                There is no funding to report.


                toxicity, efficacy, b-cell non-hodgkin lymphomas, pixantrone


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