Blog
About

6
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
0 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      Water availability drives aboveground biomass and bird richness in forest restoration plantings to achieve carbon and biodiversity cobenefits

      Read this article at

      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          To combat global warming and biodiversity loss, we require effective forest restoration that encourages recovery of species diversity and ecosystem function to deliver essential ecosystem services, such as biomass accumulation. Further, understanding how and where to undertake restoration to achieve carbon sequestration and biodiversity conservation would provide an opportunity to finance ecosystem restoration under carbon markets. We surveyed 30 native mixed‐species plantings in subtropical forests and woodlands in Australia and used structural equation modeling to determine vegetation, soil, and climate variables most likely driving aboveground biomass accrual and bird richness and investigate the relationships between plant diversity, aboveground biomass accrual, and bird diversity. We focussed on woodland and forest‐dependent birds, and functional groups at risk of decline (insectivorous, understorey‐nesting, and small‐bodied birds). We found that mean moisture availability strongly limits aboveground biomass accrual and bird richness in restoration plantings, indicating potential synergies in choosing sites for carbon and biodiversity purposes. Counter to theory, woody plant richness was a poor direct predictor of aboveground biomass accrual, but was indirectly related via significant, positive effects of stand density. We also found no direct relationship between aboveground biomass accrual and bird richness, likely because of the strong effects of moisture availability on both variables. Instead, moisture availability and patch size strongly and positively influenced the richness of woodland and forest‐dependent birds. For understorey‐nesting birds, however, shrub cover and patch size predicted richness. Stand age or area of native vegetation surrounding the patch did not influence bird richness. Our results suggest that in subtropical biomes, planting larger patches to higher densities, ideally using a diversity of trees and shrubs (characteristics of ecological plantings) in more mesic locations will enhance the provision of carbon and biodiversity cobenefits. Further, ecological plantings will aid the rapid recovery of woodland and forest bird richness, with comparable aboveground biomass accrual to less diverse forestry plantations.

          Abstract

          We assessed native mixed‐species plantings in subtropical forests and woodlands in Australia to determine vegetation, soil, and climate variables most likely driving aboveground biomass (AGB) accrual and bird richness and investigate the relationships between plant diversity, AGB accrual, and bird diversity. Our results suggest that in subtropical biomes, planting larger patches to higher densities, ideally using a diversity of trees and shrubs, in locations with higher water availability will enhance the provision of carbon and biodiversity cobenefits.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 62

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: not found
          • Article: not found

          PRODUCTIVITY AND HISTORY AS PREDICTORS OF THE LATITUDINAL DIVERSITY GRADIENT OF TERRESTRIAL BIRDS

            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: not found
            • Article: not found

            Why have birds in the woodlands of Southern Australia declined?

              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Biodiversity effects in the wild are common and as strong as key drivers of productivity

              More than 500 controlled experiments have collectively suggested that biodiversity loss reduces ecosystem productivity and stability. Yet the importance of biodiversity in sustaining the world’s ecosystems remains controversial, largely because of the lack of validation in nature, where strong abiotic forcing and complex interactions are assumed to swamp biodiversity effects. Here we test this assumption by analysing 133 estimates reported in 67 field studies that statistically separated the effects of biodiversity on biomass production from those of abiotic forcing. Contrary to the prevailing opinion of the previous two decades that biodiversity would have rare or weak effects in nature, we show that biomass production increases with species richness in a wide range of wild taxa and ecosystems. In fact, after controlling for environmental covariates, increases in biomass with biodiversity are stronger in nature than has previously been documented in experiments and comparable to or stronger than the effects of other well-known drivers of productivity, including climate and nutrient availability. These results are consistent with the collective experimental evidence that species richness increases community biomass production, and suggest that the role of biodiversity in maintaining productive ecosystems should figure prominently in global change science and policy.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Contributors
                v.hagger@uq.edu.au
                Journal
                Ecol Evol
                Ecol Evol
                10.1002/(ISSN)2045-7758
                ECE3
                Ecology and Evolution
                John Wiley and Sons Inc. (Hoboken )
                2045-7758
                27 November 2019
                December 2019
                : 9
                : 24 ( doiID: 10.1002/ece3.v9.24 )
                : 14379-14393
                Affiliations
                [ 1 ] School of Biological Sciences The University of Queensland Brisbane Qld Australia
                [ 2 ] Institute for Future Environments Queensland University of Technology Brisbane Qld Australia
                [ 3 ] CSIRO Land and Water Clayton South Vic. Australia
                [ 4 ] CSIRO Land and Water Brisbane Qld Australia
                Author notes
                [* ] Correspondence

                Valerie Hagger, School of Biological Sciences, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Qld 4072, Australia.

                Email: v.hagger@ 123456uq.edu.au

                Article
                ECE35874
                10.1002/ece3.5874
                6953662
                © 2019 The Authors. Ecology and Evolution published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

                This is an open access article under the terms of the http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Figures: 10, Tables: 1, Pages: 15, Words: 10489
                Product
                Funding
                Funded by: Ecological Society of Australia Holsworth Research Endowment , open-funder-registry 10.13039/501100008702;
                Funded by: CSIRO Integrated Natural Resource Management scholarship , open-funder-registry 10.13039/501100000943;
                Categories
                Original Research
                Original Research
                Custom metadata
                2.0
                December 2019
                Converter:WILEY_ML3GV2_TO_JATSPMC version:5.7.4 mode:remove_FC converted:10.01.2020

                Comments

                Comment on this article