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      Application of HPLC and ESI-MS techniques in the analysis of phenolic acids and flavonoids from green leafy vegetables (GLVs)

      Journal of Pharmaceutical Analysis

      Xi'an Jiaotong University

      Green leafy vegetables, Phenolic acids, Flavonoids, HPLC, ESI-MS

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          Abstract

          Diets containing high proportions of fruits and vegetables reduce the risk of onset of chronic diseases. The role of herbal medicines in improving human health is gaining popularity over the years, which also increases the need for safety and efficiency of these products. Green leafy vegetables (GLVs) are the richest source of phenolic compounds with excellent antioxidant properties. Increased consumption of diets containing phenolic compounds may give positive and better results to human health and significantly improves the immune system. Highly selective, susceptible and versatile analytical techniques are necessary for extraction, identification, and quantification of phenolic compounds from plant extracts, which helps to utilize their important biological properties. Recent advances in the pre-treatment procedures, separation techniques and spectrometry methods are used for qualitative and quantitative analysis of phenolic compounds. The online coupling of liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry (LC–MS) has become a useful tool in the metabolic profiling of plant samples. In this review, the separation and identification of phenolic acids and flavonoids from GLVs by LC–MS have been discussed along with the general extraction procedures and other sources of mass spectrometer used. The review is devoted to the understanding of the structural configuration, nature and accumulation pattern of phenolic acids and flavonoids in plants and to highlighting the recent developments in the chemical investigation of these compounds by chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques. It concludes with the advantages of the combination of these two methods and prospects.

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          Most cited references 89

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          Biosynthesis of flavonoids and effects of stress.

          The accumulation of red or purple flavonoids is a hallmark of plant stress. Mounting evidence points to diverse physiological functions for these compounds in the stress response. Advances are also being made toward understanding how plants control the types and amounts of flavonoids that are produced in response to different cues.
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            Fruit and vegetable intake and incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus: systematic review and meta-analysis

            Objective To investigate the independent effects of intake of fruit and vegetables on incidence of type 2 diabetes. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Data sources Medline, Embase, CINAHL, British Nursing Index (BNI), and the Cochrane library were searched for medical subject headings and keywords on diabetes, prediabetes, fruit, and vegetables. Expert opinions were sought and reference lists of relevant articles checked. Study selection Prospective cohort studies with an independent measure of intake of fruit, vegetables, or fruit and vegetables and data on incidence of type 2 diabetes. Results Six studies met the inclusion criteria; four of these studies also provided separate information on the consumption of green leafy vegetables. Summary estimates showed that greater intake of green leafy vegetables was associated with a 14% (hazard ratio 0.86, 95% confidence interval 0.77 to 0.97) reduction in risk of type 2 diabetes (P=0.01). The summary estimates showed no significant benefits of increasing the consumption of vegetables, fruit, or fruit and vegetables combined. Conclusion Increasing daily intake of green leafy vegetables could significantly reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes and should be investigated further.
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              Extraction and analysis of phenolics in food.

              Phenolics are ubiquitous compounds found in all plants as their secondary metabolites. These include simple phenols, hydroxybenzoic acid and cinnamic acid derivatives, flavonoids, coumarines and tannins, among others. The extraction of phenolics from source materials is the first step involved in their analysis. While chemical methods are used for determination of total content of phenolics, chromatographic and spectrometric analyses are employed for identification and quantification of individual compounds present. This paper provides a summary of background information and methodologies used for the analysis of phenolics in foods and nutraceuticals.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                J Pharm Anal
                J Pharm Anal
                Journal of Pharmaceutical Analysis
                Xi'an Jiaotong University
                2095-1779
                2214-0883
                16 June 2017
                December 2017
                16 June 2017
                : 7
                : 6
                : 349-364
                Affiliations
                Plant Metabolic Pathway Laboratory, RGSOIPL, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Kharagpur, West Bengal 721302, India
                Article
                S2095-1779(17)30072-2
                10.1016/j.jpha.2017.06.005
                5790745
                © 2017 Xi'an Jiaotong University. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V.

                This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

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