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      Left and right ventricular structure and function in subclinical hypothyroidism: The effects of one-year levothyroxine treatment

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          Abstract

          Background

          The aim of this study was to investigate left ventricular (LV) and right ventricular (RV) structure, function, and mechanics in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism (SHT), and to evaluate the effect of a 1-year levothyroxine treatment.

          Material/Methods

          We compared 45 untreated women with subclinical hypothyroidism and 35 healthy control women matched by age. All the subjects underwent laboratory analyses, which included a thyroid hormone levels (free T3, free T4, and TSH) test, and a complete 2-dimensional echocardiographic study. All the SHT patients received levothyroxine therapy and were followed for a year after euthyroid state was achieved.

          Results

          The LV mass index in the SHT participants before and after replacement therapy was significantly higher than in controls. In the SHT patients before the treatment, LV diastolic function and global function estimated by the Tei index were significantly impaired, whereas the LV systolic function was decreased. The results show that LV mechanics was significantly impaired in the SHT patients at baseline. Additionally, the SHT participants before levothyroxine substitution had increased RV wall thickness and significantly impaired RV diastolic and global function in comparison with the controls or the SHT subjects after the treatment. Furthermore, RV mechanics was also significantly deteriorated in the SHT patients before the treatment.

          Conclusions

          Subclinical hypothyroidism significantly affected LV and RV structure, systolic, diastolic and global function, and LV and RV mechanics. Levothyroxine replacement therapy significantly improved cardiac structure, function, and mechanics in the SHT patients.

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          Most cited references 28

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          New index of combined systolic and diastolic myocardial performance: a simple and reproducible measure of cardiac function--a study in normals and dilated cardiomyopathy.

          Because systolic and diastolic dysfunction frequently coexist, it is hypothesized that a combined measure of left ventricular chamber performance may be more reflective of overall cardiac dysfunction than systolic or diastolic measures alone. METHODS Study patients consisted of 170 subjects: 70 normals, 47 patients with severe dilated cardiomyopathy in NYHA class III-IV awaiting cardiac transplantation and 53 patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy of intermediate severity [NYHA class II, ejection fractions (EF) 30-50%]. EF, stroke volume and cardiac indexes were measured using conventional echo-Doppler methods. Pre-ejection period/ejection time (PEP/ET), isovolumetric relaxation time (IRT), isovolumetric contraction time/ET (ICT/ET) were also measured. A new derived index of myocardial performance: (ICT+IRT)/ET, was obtained by subtracting ET from the interval between cessation and onset of the mitral inflow velocity to give the sum of ICT and IRT. RESULTS The index was easily measured, reproducible, and had a narrow range in normals. The mean value of the index was significantly different between normal, intermediate and pre-transplant subjects (0.39 +/- 0.05, 0.59 +/- 0.10 and 1.06 +/- 0.24, respectively, p < 0.001 for all comparisons). The degree of inter-group overlap was smaller for the index compared to PEP/ET, ICT/ET and other parameters. Within functional groups, the value of the index did not appear to be related to heart rate, mean arterial pressure and the degree of mitral regurgitation. CONCLUSION (ICT+IRT)/ET is a conceptually new, simple and reproducible Doppler index of combined systolic and diastolic myocardial performance in patients with primary myocardial systolic dysfunction.
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            Right ventricular ejection fraction is an independent predictor of survival in patients with moderate heart failure.

            We sought to study the relationship between survival and right ventricular ejection fraction (RVEF) in a subgroup of patients with moderate congestive heart failure (CHF). It has been demonstrated that RVEF is an independent predictor of survival in patients with advanced CHF. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing and radionuclide angiography (to determine right and left ventricular ejection fraction) were prospectively performed in 205 consecutive patients with moderate CHF (140 patients in New York Heart Association [NYHA] class II, 65 in class III). Left ventricular ejection fraction was 29.3%+/-10.1%, RVEF was 37.5%+/-14.6% and peak oxygen consumption (VO2) was 16.2+/-5.4 ml/min/kg (60.2%+/-19% of maximal predicted VO2). After a median follow-up period of 755 days, there were 44 cardiac-related deaths, 3 deaths from noncardiac causes and 15 transplantations of whom 2 were urgent; 1 patient was lost to follow-up. Multivariate analysis showed that three variables-NYHA classification, percent of maximal predicted VO2 and RVEF-were independent predictors of both survival and event-free cardiac survival. Left ventricular ejection fraction and peak VO2 normalized to body weight had no predictive value. The event-free survival rates from cardiovascular mortality and urgent transplantation at 1 year were 80%, 90% and 95% in patients with an RVEF or =25% and or =35%, respectively. At 2 years, survival rates were 59%, 77% and 93% in the same subgroups, respectively. In addition to the NYHA classification and to the percent of maximal predicted VO2, RVEF is an independent predictor of survival in patients with moderate CHF.
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              Non-Doppler two-dimensional strain imaging by echocardiography--from technical considerations to clinical applications.

              During the past several years, strain and strain rate imaging have emerged as a quantitative technique to accurately estimate myocardial function and contractility. Non-Doppler, 2-dimensional (2D) strain imaging is a new echocardiographic technique for obtaining strain and strain rate measurements. It analyzes motion by tracking speckles in the ultrasonic image in two dimensions. Current available software allows spatial and temporal image processing with recognition and selection of such elements on ultrasound image. The geometric shift of each speckle represents local tissue movement. By tracking theses speckles, 2D tissue velocity, strain, and strain rate can be calculated. Non-Doppler 2D strain imaging is simple to perform. It requires only one cardiac cycle to be acquired; further processing and interpretation can be done after image data acquisition. Because it is not based on tissue Doppler measurements, it is angle independent. Data regarding accuracy, validity, and clinical application of non-Doppler 2D strain imaging are rapidly accumulating. This technique may prove to be of significant clinical value, enabling rapid and accurate assessment of global and segmental myocardial function.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Med Sci Monit
                Med. Sci. Monit
                Medical Science Monitor
                Medical Science Monitor : International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
                International Scientific Literature, Inc.
                1234-1010
                1643-3750
                2013
                10 November 2013
                : 19
                : 960-968
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Endocrinology, University Clinical Hospital Center “Dr Dragisa Misovic”, Belgrade, Serbia
                [2 ]Department of Cardiology, University Clinical Hospital Center “Dr Dragisa Misovic”, Belgrade, Serbia
                [3 ]Clinical Centre of Serbia, Clinic of Cardiology, Belgrade, Serbia
                [4 ]Faculty of Medicine, Belgrade, Serbia
                [5 ]Clinical Centre of Serbia, Clinic of Endocrinology, Belgrade, Serbia
                Author notes
                Corresponding Author: Marijana Tadic, e-mail: marijana_tadic@ 123456hotmail.com
                [A]

                Study Design

                [B]

                Data Collection

                [C]

                Statistical Analysis

                [D]

                Data Interpretation

                [E]

                Manuscript Preparation

                [F]

                Literature Search

                [G]

                Funds Collection

                Article
                889621
                10.12659/MSM.889621
                3829699
                24217559
                © Med Sci Monit, 2013

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License

                Categories
                Clinical Research

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