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      Boussignac CPAP system for brain death confirmation with apneic test in case of acute lung injury/adult respiratory distress syndrome – series of cases

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          Abstract

          Introduction

          There are some patients with severe respiratory disturbances like adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and suspicion of brain death, for whom typical performance of the apneic test is difficult to complete because of quick desaturation and rapid deterioration without effective ventilation. To avoid failure of brain death confirmation and possible loss of organ donation another approach to apneic test is needed. We present two cases of patients with clinical symptoms of brain death, with lung pathology (acute lung injury, ARDS, lung embolism and lung infection), in whom apneic tests for recognizing brain death were difficult to perform. During typical performance of apneic test involving the use of oxygen catheter for apneic oxygenation we observed severe desaturation with growing hypotension and hemodynamic destabilization. But with the use of Boussignac CPAP system all necessary tests were successfully completed, confirming the patient’s brain death, which gave us the opportunity to perform procedures for organ donation. The main reason of apneic test difficulties was severe gas exchange disturbances secondary to ARDS. Thus lack of positive end expiratory pressure during classical performance of apneic test leads to quick desaturation and rapid hemodynamic deterioration, limiting the observation period below dedicated at least 10-minute interval.

          Conclusion

          The Boussignac CPAP system may be an effective tool for performing transparent apneic test in case of serious respiratory disturbances, especially in the form of acute lung injury or ARDS.

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          Most cited references 13

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          Efficacy of a T-piece system and a continuous positive airway pressure system for apnea testing in the diagnosis of brain death.

          To prospectively compare three methods of apnea testing for the confirmation of brain death. Prospective, randomized, crossover study. Intensive care unit of a tertiary care university hospital. Twenty adult patients requiring apnea testing for confirmation of brain death. Ten minute apnea testing was repeated in random order for every patient with the three oxygenation systems: oxygen catheter inserted through the endotracheal tube (oxygen 6 L/min), T-piece system (oxygen 12 L/min), and continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) system 10 cm H2O (oxygen 12 L/min). Arterial blood was drawn at 0, 2, 5, and 10 mins of each test. Compared with baseline, Paco2 increased by 30.6 +/- 7.4, 30.0 +/- 7.3 and 30.2 +/- 7.5 mm Hg during the apnea period (p = .96), reaching 73.3 +/- 8.3, 71.6 +/- 11.1, and 72.7 +/- 9.0 mm Hg at the end of the apnea test (p = .73) for the oxygen catheter, the T-piece, and the CPAP, respectively. Pao2 decreased less with the CPAP compared with the oxygen catheter or the T-piece (-22.4 +/- 76, -99.1 +/- 158, and -91.6 +/- 133 mm Hg, respectively, p < .01). In two patients, apnea testing could not be completed with the oxygen catheter and the T-piece because of desaturation, although it could be completed with the CPAP. The T-piece and the CPAP systems are effective alternatives to the standard oxygen catheter technique for apnea testing. Oxygenation was best maintained with the CPAP system, which can be useful in some patients.
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            Continuous positive airway pressure versus bilevel noninvasive ventilation in acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema: a randomized multicenter trial.

            Patients with acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema may develop respiratory failure. Noninvasive respiratory support should be initiated rapidly to avoid tracheal intubation. The aim of this study is to compare the efficacy of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) delivered by the Boussignac CPAP device and bilevel positive airway pressure (bilevel PAP) in patients with acute respiratory failure caused by acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema. This prospective multicenter randomized study was conducted in 3 emergency departments. Patients were assigned to Boussignac CPAP through a facemask or to bilevel PAP, in addition to standard therapy. The main outcome was a combined criterion (tracheal intubation, death, or acute myocardial infarction). Complications, durations of ventilation, and hospitalization were also assessed. After 1 hour of ventilation and at the end of the ventilation period, clinical parameters of respiratory distress and blood gas exchange significantly improved in each treatment arm. No significant differences were observed between the Boussignac CPAP and bilevel PAP arms for the combined criterion (5% versus 12%, respectively; odds ratio [OR] 0.4; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.0 to 1.9) and also for severe complications (9% versus 6%; OR 1.5; 95% CI 0.3 to 9.9), duration of ventilation (median for both groups 2 hours; interquartile range [IQR] 1.2 to 3.0 hours), duration of hospitalization (CPAP 8.5 [IQR 6 to 14] days; bilevel PAP 10 [IQR 7 to 16] days), or intrahospital mortality (8% versus 14%; OR 1.8 [IQR 0.4 to 8.8]). Similar results were obtained among hypercapnic patients (PaCO2 >45 mm Hg). Whatever the ventilation support used, the combined criterion and severe complications were more frequently observed among hypercapnic patients. Both Boussignac CPAP and bilevel PAP appeared effective in rapidly improving respiratory distress even in hypercapnic patients, but they were not different in terms of patient outcome.
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              Donation after circulatory death: current status.

              Donor shortage has forced transplant teams to explore new methods to increase the potential donor pool. Donation after circulatory death (DCD) has opened new perspectives and could be a valuable option to expand the brain-dead donors. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of current practice and to identify remaining questions related to ethical and medical issues that should be further addressed in the future. Recent findings demonstrate acceptable outcomes after DCD kidney and lung transplantation but inferior graft survival for liver transplantation. The impact and importance of the agonal phase following withdrawal of treatment in controlled DCD is increasingly recognized. Premortem interventions are currently under debate related to preservation strategies or comfort therapy. New preservation strategies using in-situ/in-vivo extracorporeal membrane oxygenation or ex-vivo machine perfusion have large potential in the future. Finally, organizations and institutions are reporting more uniform guidelines related to declaration of death and DCD organ procurement. DCD donation has regained much attention during the last decade and is now part of standard clinical practice albeit this type of donation should not be regarded as an equally acceptable alternative for donation after brain death. It will be important to further explore the potential of DCD, to monitor the long-term outcomes and to further optimize the quality of these grafts. Development and implementation of uniform guidelines will be necessary to guarantee the clinical use of these donor pools.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Dove Medical Press
                1176-6336
                1178-203X
                2015
                17 June 2015
                : 11
                : 961-965
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Anesthesia and Intensive Care, Medical University of Lodz, Lodz, Poland
                [2 ]Department of Emergency Medicine and Disaster Medicine, Medical University of Lodz, Lodz, Poland
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Tomasz Gaszynski, Department of Emergency Medicine and Disaster Medicine, Medical University of Lodz, Kopcinskiego 22, Lodz 90-153, Poland, Tel +48 42 678 3748, Email tomasz.gaszynski@ 123456umed.lodz.pl
                Article
                tcrm-11-961
                10.2147/TCRM.S72279
                4476490
                © 2015 Wieczorek and Gaszynski. This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License

                The full terms of the License are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Categories
                Case Report

                Medicine

                boussignac cpap, ali, ards, organ donor, brain death

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