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      Effect of Secretion of Splenocytes after Superior Ovarian Nerve Section on the Ovarian Steroidogenesis

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          Abstract

          It is known that ovary and spleen are innervated extensively by afferent and efferent noradrenergic sympathetic nerve fibers from the celiac ganglion. Furthermore, immune cells located in the ovary influence the ovarian physiology. However, the peripheral interaction between the immune and neuroendocrine system is poorly understood. This work was undertaken to study the effect of superior ovarian nerve (SON) transection, in adult rats, on the number of splenocyte β-adrenergic receptors and their possible relation to ovarian steroidogenesis, measuring the effect of secretions of those splenocytes on progesterone and estradiol release from the ovary. Seven days after SON transection, the splenocytes were isolated and then cultured for 48 h. Their number of β-adrenergic receptors, measured using [<sup>125</sup>I]-cyanopindolol as ligand, increased, and their culture media, used to stimulate ovaries from 60-day-old intact (neither SON-transected nor sham-operated) rats in vitro on diestrous day 2 showed a decrease in progesterone release and an increase in estradiol release in relation to splenocyte culture media of control rats (sham-operated; p < 0.001, respectively). The effects of in vivo SON transection were simulated by an in vitro system modulating the splenocyte β-adrenergic receptor number. The splenocytes from SON-transectioned rats were preincubated with and without norepinephrine (NE) 10<sup>–6</sup> M for 48 h, a low and high number of β-adrenergic receptors respectively, and then were stimulated with NE 10<sup>–6</sup> M for 24 h. After that, the culture medium from splenocytes with a low number of β-adrenergic receptors induced progesterone release from the ovaries of intact rats (p < 0.001), but produced no change in estradiol release. The data suggest that splenocyte secretions, which participate in the ovarian steroidogenic response, particularly in progesterone release, might be controlled by adrenergic influences since the number of splenocyte β-adrenergic receptors changes through SON-celiac ganglion-noradrenergic postganglionic innervation of the spleen. In estradiol release, probably other neurotransmitters than norepinephrine (NE) are involved when the SON is sectioned. In this paper we also show functional evidence for modulation of immune function by the sympathetic nervous system and its principal neurotransmitter, NE.

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          Most cited references 6

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          Catecholamine content and in vitro catecholamine synthesis in peripheral human lymphocytes

           N Musso (1996)
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            Influence of immune signals on the hypothalamic-pituitary axis of the rodent.

             C Rivier (1995)
            The immune system and the hypothalamic-pituitary (H-P) axis are functionally connected, so that exposure to antigens elicits a coordinated response which allows the organism to successfully withstand immunologic challenges. An important feature of this bilateral communication is the appearance of proteins released into the circulation by activated immune cells. These proteins, called cytokines or interleukins, stimulate the activity of the H-P axis, thus increasing circulating ACTH and corticosteroid levels. This in turn induces metabolic changes such as increases in energy substrates, restrains the activity of specific immune cells, and alters the release of secretagogues important for both the immune system and neuroendocrine organs. After acute increases in blood-borne levels of cytokines, nerve terminals in the median eminence, particularly those containing corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), represent an important site of action of these immune signals. Subsequently, changes take place within the brain in general and the hypothalamus in particular. They include the synthesis/release of peptides such as CRF and vasopressin, of neurotransmitters such as catecholamines and prostaglandins, and of cytokines themselves. Upon prolonged exposure to blood-borne immune signals additional mechanisms come into play, including those taking place directly at the pituitary level. These observations indicate that cytokines released into the general circulation act on multiple sites within the H-P axis, a phenomenon that relies on the recruitment of a large number of pathways. This review discusses these pathways and the mechanisms through which they allow cytokines to convey the occurrence of immune activation to the brain.
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              Sympathetic nervous system modulation of the immune system. II. Induction of lymphocyte proliferation and migration in vivo by chemical sympathectomy

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                NIM
                Neuroimmunomodulation
                10.1159/issn.1021-7401
                Neuroimmunomodulation
                S. Karger AG
                1021-7401
                1423-0216
                1999
                August 1999
                23 June 1999
                : 6
                : 4
                : 293-299
                Affiliations
                Laboratorio de Biología de la Reproducción, Facultad de Química, Bioquímica y Farmacia, Universidad Nacional de San Luis, Argentina
                Article
                26387 Neuroimmunomodulation 1999;6:293–299
                10.1159/000026387
                10393515
                © 1999 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 7, References: 36, Pages: 7
                Categories
                Original Paper

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