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      Lipid-regulated sterol transfer between closely apposed membranes by oxysterol-binding protein homologues

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          Abstract

          The ORP lipid-binding domain can contact two membranes simultaneously to facilitate sterol extraction or delivery at one membrane in response to the lipid composition of the other.

          Abstract

          Sterols are transferred between cellular membranes by vesicular and poorly understood nonvesicular pathways. Oxysterol-binding protein–related proteins (ORPs) have been implicated in sterol sensing and nonvesicular transport. In this study, we show that yeast ORPs use a novel mechanism that allows regulated sterol transfer between closely apposed membranes, such as organelle contact sites. We find that the core lipid-binding domain found in all ORPs can simultaneously bind two membranes. Using Osh4p/Kes1p as a representative ORP, we show that ORPs have at least two membrane-binding surfaces; one near the mouth of the sterol-binding pocket and a distal site that can bind a second membrane. The distal site is required for the protein to function in cells and, remarkably, regulates the rate at which Osh4p extracts and delivers sterols in a phosphoinositide-dependent manner. Together, these findings suggest a new model of how ORPs could sense and regulate the lipid composition of adjacent membranes.

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          Most cited references 51

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          Membrane lipids: where they are and how they behave.

          Throughout the biological world, a 30 A hydrophobic film typically delimits the environments that serve as the margin between life and death for individual cells. Biochemical and biophysical findings have provided a detailed model of the composition and structure of membranes, which includes levels of dynamic organization both across the lipid bilayer (lipid asymmetry) and in the lateral dimension (lipid domains) of membranes. How do cells apply anabolic and catabolic enzymes, translocases and transporters, plus the intrinsic physical phase behaviour of lipids and their interactions with membrane proteins, to create the unique compositions and multiple functionalities of their individual membranes?
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            Role of cholesterol and lipid organization in disease.

            Membrane lipids are essential for biological functions ranging from membrane trafficking to signal transduction. The composition of lipid membranes influences their organization and properties, so it is not surprising that disorders in lipid metabolism and transport have a role in human disease. Significant recent progress has enhanced our understanding of the molecular and cellular basis of lipid-associated disorders such as Tangier disease, Niemann-Pick disease type C and atherosclerosis. These insights have also led to improved understanding of normal physiology.
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              Cholesterol sensor ORP1L contacts the ER protein VAP to control Rab7–RILP–p150Glued and late endosome positioning

              Late endosomes (LEs) have characteristic intracellular distributions determined by their interactions with various motor proteins. Motor proteins associated to the dynactin subunit p150Glued bind to LEs via the Rab7 effector Rab7-interacting lysosomal protein (RILP) in association with the oxysterol-binding protein ORP1L. We found that cholesterol levels in LEs are sensed by ORP1L and are lower in peripheral vesicles. Under low cholesterol conditions, ORP1L conformation induces the formation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER)–LE membrane contact sites. At these sites, the ER protein VAP (VAMP [vesicle-associated membrane protein]-associated ER protein) can interact in trans with the Rab7–RILP complex to remove p150Glued and associated motors. LEs then move to the microtubule plus end. Under high cholesterol conditions, as in Niemann-Pick type C disease, this process is prevented, and LEs accumulate at the microtubule minus end as the result of dynein motor activity. These data explain how the ER and cholesterol control the association of LEs with motor proteins and their positioning in cells.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Cell Biol
                J. Cell Biol
                jcb
                The Journal of Cell Biology
                The Rockefeller University Press
                0021-9525
                1540-8140
                14 December 2009
                : 187
                : 6
                : 889-903
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Laboratory of Cell Biochemistry and Biology and [2 ]Laboratory of Molecular Biology, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892
                Author notes
                Correspondence to William A. Prinz: wprinz@ 123456helix.nih.gov
                Article
                200905007
                10.1083/jcb.200905007
                2806323
                20008566
                © 2009 The Rockefeller University Press

                This article is distributed under the terms of an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike–No Mirror Sites license for the first six months after the publication date (see http://www.jcb.org/misc/terms.shtml). After six months it is available under a Creative Commons License (Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported license, as described at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/).

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