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      Control and possible applications of a novel carrot-spoilage basidiomycete, Fibulorhizoctonia  psychrophila

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          Abstract

          A novel cold-tolerant fungus, Fibulorhizoctonia psychrophila, was isolated from a refrigerated carrot storage facility and identified as an anamorph of Athelia, often classified in Rhizoctonia s.l. Growth of this fungus was observed between 0 and 20°C with an optimum at 9–12°C, while incubation of mycelium grown at 15–32°C resulted in absence of growth even after the fungus was transferred back to 15°C. Growth was inhibited in the presence of the antifungals sorbic acid or natamycin, in particular when the fungus was incubated at 18°C. F. psychrophila produces polysaccharide degrading enzymes that, when compared to enzymes from the ascomycete fungus Aspergillus niger, retain a larger proportion of their activity at lower temperatures. This indicates that F. psychrophila could be used as a source for novel industrial enzymes that are active at 4–15°C.

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          AMPLIFICATION AND DIRECT SEQUENCING OF FUNGAL RIBOSOMAL RNA GENES FOR PHYLOGENETICS

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            Aspergillus Enzymes Involved in Degradation of Plant Cell Wall Polysaccharides

            Degradation of plant cell wall polysaccharides is of major importance in the food and feed, beverage, textile, and paper and pulp industries, as well as in several other industrial production processes. Enzymatic degradation of these polymers has received attention for many years and is becoming a more and more attractive alternative to chemical and mechanical processes. Over the past 15 years, much progress has been made in elucidating the structural characteristics of these polysaccharides and in characterizing the enzymes involved in their degradation and the genes of biotechnologically relevant microorganisms encoding these enzymes. The members of the fungal genus Aspergillus are commonly used for the production of polysaccharide-degrading enzymes. This genus produces a wide spectrum of cell wall-degrading enzymes, allowing not only complete degradation of the polysaccharides but also tailored modifications by using specific enzymes purified from these fungi. This review summarizes our current knowledge of the cell wall polysaccharide-degrading enzymes from aspergilli and the genes by which they are encoded.
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              Genetic analysis and the construction of master strains for assignment of genes to six linkage groups in Aspergillus niger.

              A start has been made on establishing a collection of Aspergillus niger colour and auxotrophic mutants with an isogenic background for use as a source of genetic markers. All strains have short conidiophores (csp A1), which makes them easy to handle on test plates. Genetic markers were combined stepwise by somatic recombination. Somatic diploids were obtained at frequencies of 10(-6) -10(-5) with conidiospores collected from a heterokaryon. The haploidization of heterozygous diploids was induced by benomyl. For unlinked markers, the frequency of recombinants varied from 35%-65%. Low frequencies of recombinants were found between markers on a same chromosome, but this was sometimes disturbed by mitotic crossing-over during an early stage of the diploid. Master strains were constructed having markers for six linkage groups.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                +31-30-2533016 , +31-30-2513655 , r.p.devries@uu.nl
                Journal
                Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
                Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
                Springer Netherlands (Dordrecht )
                0003-6072
                1572-9699
                5 January 2008
                May 2008
                : 93
                : 4
                : 407-413
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Microbiology, Utrecht University, Padualaan 8, 3584 CH Utrecht, The Netherlands
                [2 ]CBS Fungal Biodiversity Centre, P.O. Box 85167, 3508 AD Utrecht, The Netherlands
                Article
                9218
                10.1007/s10482-007-9218-7
                2268727
                18183497
                9301ec34-c9d9-4119-b944-926f809827e0
                © The Author(s) 2008
                History
                : 14 May 2007
                : 18 December 2007
                Categories
                Original Paper
                Custom metadata
                © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2008

                Microbiology & Virology
                fibulorhizoctoniapsychrophila,cold-tolerant fungus,cold-active enzymes,carrot-spoilage

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