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      The Yersinia pestis gcvB gene encodes two small regulatory RNA molecules

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      1 , 1 , 1 ,
      BMC Microbiology
      BioMed Central

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          Abstract

          Background

          In recent years it has become clear that small non-coding RNAs function as regulatory elements in bacterial virulence and bacterial stress responses. We tested for the presence of the small non-coding GcvB RNAs in Y. pestis as possible regulators of gene expression in this organism.

          Results

          In this study, we report that the Yersinia pestis KIM6 gcvB gene encodes two small RNAs. Transcription of gcvB is activated by the GcvA protein and repressed by the GcvR protein. The gcvB-encoded RNAs are required for repression of the Y. pestis dppA gene, encoding the periplasmic-binding protein component of the dipeptide transport system, showing that the GcvB RNAs have regulatory activity. A deletion of the gcvB gene from the Y. pestis KIM6 chromosome results in a decrease in the generation time of the organism as well as a change in colony morphology.

          Conclusion

          The results of this study indicate that the Y. pestis gcvB gene encodes two small non-coding regulatory RNAs that repress dppA expression. A gcvB deletion is pleiotropic, suggesting that the sRNAs are likely involved in controlling genes in addition to dppA.

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          Most cited references25

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          Yersinia pestis--etiologic agent of plague.

          Plague is a widespread zoonotic disease that is caused by Yersinia pestis and has had devastating effects on the human population throughout history. Disappearance of the disease is unlikely due to the wide range of mammalian hosts and their attendant fleas. The flea/rodent life cycle of Y. pestis, a gram-negative obligate pathogen, exposes it to very different environmental conditions and has resulted in some novel traits facilitating transmission and infection. Studies characterizing virulence determinants of Y. pestis have identified novel mechanisms for overcoming host defenses. Regulatory systems controlling the expression of some of these virulence factors have proven quite complex. These areas of research have provide new insights into the host-parasite relationship. This review will update our present understanding of the history, etiology, epidemiology, clinical aspects, and public health issues of plague.
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            Genome sequence of Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague.

            The Gram-negative bacterium Yersinia pestis is the causative agent of the systemic invasive infectious disease classically referred to as plague, and has been responsible for three human pandemics: the Justinian plague (sixth to eighth centuries), the Black Death (fourteenth to nineteenth centuries) and modern plague (nineteenth century to the present day). The recent identification of strains resistant to multiple drugs and the potential use of Y. pestis as an agent of biological warfare mean that plague still poses a threat to human health. Here we report the complete genome sequence of Y. pestis strain CO92, consisting of a 4.65-megabase (Mb) chromosome and three plasmids of 96.2 kilobases (kb), 70.3 kb and 9.6 kb. The genome is unusually rich in insertion sequences and displays anomalies in GC base-composition bias, indicating frequent intragenomic recombination. Many genes seem to have been acquired from other bacteria and viruses (including adhesins, secretion systems and insecticidal toxins). The genome contains around 150 pseudogenes, many of which are remnants of a redundant enteropathogenic lifestyle. The evidence of ongoing genome fluidity, expansion and decay suggests Y. pestis is a pathogen that has undergone large-scale genetic flux and provides a unique insight into the ways in which new and highly virulent pathogens evolve.
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              The small RNA chaperone Hfq and multiple small RNAs control quorum sensing in Vibrio harveyi and Vibrio cholerae.

              Quorum-sensing bacteria communicate with extracellular signal molecules called autoinducers. This process allows community-wide synchronization of gene expression. A screen for additional components of the Vibrio harveyi and Vibrio cholerae quorum-sensing circuits revealed the protein Hfq. Hfq mediates interactions between small, regulatory RNAs (sRNAs) and specific messenger RNA (mRNA) targets. These interactions typically alter the stability of the target transcripts. We show that Hfq mediates the destabilization of the mRNA encoding the quorum-sensing master regulators LuxR (V. harveyi) and HapR (V. cholerae), implicating an sRNA in the circuit. Using a bioinformatics approach to identify putative sRNAs, we identified four candidate sRNAs in V. cholerae. The simultaneous deletion of all four sRNAs is required to stabilize hapR mRNA. We propose that Hfq, together with these sRNAs, creates an ultrasensitive regulatory switch that controls the critical transition into the high cell density, quorum-sensing mode.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                BMC Microbiol
                BMC Microbiology
                BioMed Central (London )
                1471-2180
                2006
                12 June 2006
                : 6
                : 52
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Microbiology, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242, USA
                Article
                1471-2180-6-52
                10.1186/1471-2180-6-52
                1557403
                16768793
                931dbbc9-97b2-4869-93c2-1ef102ba995c
                Copyright © 2006 McArthur et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Categories
                Research Article

                Microbiology & Virology
                Microbiology & Virology

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