During the period of the 11th to 17th century, the access of Jews to European universities was restricted and even those who were fortunate enough to be admitted to a university were not awarded a degree at the end of their studies. An exception to this situation was the University of Padua that allowed Jewish students to study and awarded them degrees; indeed 229 physicians graduated from this university between 1409 and 1721. Among these physicians there were many luminaries such as Joseph Del Medigo, Salmon Congeliano and Toviah Cohen. The latter made many contributions to the field of nephrology. In this treatise Maaseh Toviah he discussed uroscopy, kidney function, body fluid homeostasis and obstructive uropathy.