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      Acute Kidney Injury in Lymphoma: A Single Centre Experience

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          Background. Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common but least studied complication of lymphoma. Objective. To determine the frequency and predictors of AKI in lymphoma and to study the impact of AKI on hospital stay and mortality. Methods. Retrospective review of medical records of hospitalized lymphoma patients aged ≥14 years between January 2008 and December 2011 was done. Results. Out of 365 patients, AKI was present in 31.8% (116/365). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that independent predictors for AKI included sepsis (odds ratio (OR) 3.76; 95% CI 1.83–7.72), aminoglycosides (OR 4.75; 95% CI 1.15–19.52), diuretics (OR 2.96; 95% CI 1.31–6.69), tumor lysis syndrome (OR 3.85; 95% CI 1.54–9.59), and R-CVP regimen (OR 4.70; 95% CI 1.20–18.36). AKI stages 2 and 3 was associated with increased hospital stay (OR 2.01; 95% CI 1.19–3.40). Conclusion. AKI was significantly associated with sepsis, aminoglycoside, diuretics, presence of tumor lysis syndrome, and use of R-CVP regimen. Presence of AKIN (Acute Kidney Injury Network) stages 2 and 3 AKI had increased hospital stay. AKI was also associated with increased mortality.

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          Acute kidney injury, mortality, length of stay, and costs in hospitalized patients.

          The marginal effects of acute kidney injury on in-hospital mortality, length of stay (LOS), and costs have not been well described. A consecutive sample of 19,982 adults who were admitted to an urban academic medical center, including 9210 who had two or more serum creatinine (SCr) determinations, was evaluated. The presence and degree of acute kidney injury were assessed using absolute and relative increases from baseline to peak SCr concentration during hospitalization. Large increases in SCr concentration were relatively rare (e.g., >or=2.0 mg/dl in 105 [1%] patients), whereas more modest increases in SCr were common (e.g., >or=0.5 mg/dl in 1237 [13%] patients). Modest changes in SCr were significantly associated with mortality, LOS, and costs, even after adjustment for age, gender, admission International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification diagnosis, severity of illness (diagnosis-related group weight), and chronic kidney disease. For example, an increase in SCr >or=0.5 mg/dl was associated with a 6.5-fold (95% confidence interval 5.0 to 8.5) increase in the odds of death, a 3.5-d increase in LOS, and nearly 7500 dollars in excess hospital costs. Acute kidney injury is associated with significantly increased mortality, LOS, and costs across a broad spectrum of conditions. Moreover, outcomes are related directly to the severity of acute kidney injury, whether characterized by nominal or percentage changes in serum creatinine.
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            Costs and outcomes of acute kidney injury (AKI) following cardiac surgery.

            Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a recognized complication of cardiac surgery; however, the variability in costs and outcomes reported are due, in part, to different criteria for diagnosing and classifying AKI. We determined costs, resource use and mortality rate of patients. We used the serum creatinine component of the RIFLE system to classify AKI. A retrospective cohort study was conducted from the electronic data repository at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center of patients who underwent cardiac surgery and had an elevation (>or=0.5 mg/dl) of serum creatinine postoperatively. Data were compared to age- and APACHE III-matched controls. Cost, mortality and resource use of AKI patients were determined postoperatively for each of the three RIFLE classes on the basis of changes in serum creatinine. Of the 3741 admissions, 258 (6.9%) had AKI and were classified as RIFLE-R 138 (3.7%), RIFLE-I 70 (1.9%) and RIFLE-F 50 (1.3%). Total and departmental level costs, length of stay (LOS) and requirement for renal replacement therapy (RRT) were higher in AKI patients compared to controls. Statistically significant differences in all costs, mortality rate and requirement for RRT were seen in the patients stratified into RIFLE-R, RIFLE-I and RIFLE-F. Even patients with the smallest change in serum creatinine, namely RIFLE-R, had a 2.2-fold greater mortality, a 1.6-fold increase in ICU LOS and 1.6-fold increase in total postoperative costs compared to controls. Costs, LOS and mortality are higher in postoperative cardiac surgery patients who develop AKI using RIFLE criteria, and these values increase as AKI severity worsens.
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              Incidence of acute kidney injury in cancer patients: a Danish population-based cohort study.

              Cancer patients may be at increased risk of acute kidney injury, but evidence is limited. We assembled a cohort of incident cancer patients diagnosed within a population-based hospital setting in Northern Denmark (population:~1.2 million) between 1999 and 2006. Patients were followed up to five years for acute kidney injury, identified using creatinine measurements recorded in a laboratory database covering the study area. Acute kidney injury was defined according to recent consensus criteria as a 50% increase in creatinine level. We computed incidence rate, 1-year, and 5-year risks of acute kidney injury, accounting for competing risk from death. Acute kidney injury incidence was compared between cancers using a Cox regression model adjusted for important confounders. Among 37,267 incident cancer patients with a creatinine measurement, 9613 (25.8%) developed acute kidney injury during 77,376 person-years. The incidence was 258 (95%CI: 252-264) per 1000 person-years the first year after cancer diagnosis decreasing to 43 (95%CI: 41-44) thereafter. The 1-year risk was 17.5% (95%CI: 17.1-17.9%), and the 5-year risk was 27.0% (95%CI: 26.5-27.5%). We observed the highest 1-year risk in patients with kidney cancer [44.0% (95%CI: 40.5-47.5)], liver cancer [33.0% (95%CI: 28.2-37.8%)], or multiple myeloma [31.8% (95%CI: 27.3-36.3%)]. Similar results were observed after adjustment for confounders. Both overall and for most specific cancer sites, risks were higher among patients with distant metastases at cancer diagnosis. Acute kidney injury is a common complication in cancer patients, particularly in patients with kidney cancer, liver cancer, or multiple myeloma. Copyright © 2011 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

                Author and article information

                Int J Nephrol
                Int J Nephrol
                International Journal of Nephrology
                Hindawi Publishing Corporation
                3 February 2014
                : 2014
                1Section of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi 74800, Pakistan
                2Department of Medicine, Khyber Teaching Hospital, Peshawar 25000, Pakistan
                3Department of Nephrology, SSB Hospital, Kuala Belait KA1131, Brunei Darussalam
                4Department of Nephrology, RIPAS Hospital, Bandar Seri Begawan BA1710, Brunei Darussalam
                Author notes
                *Muhammad Abdul Mabood Khalil: doctorkhalil1975@

                Academic Editor: Kazunari Kaneko

                Copyright © 2014 Muhammad Abdul Mabood Khalil et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Research Article



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