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      Lack of association between airflow limitation and recurrence of venous thromboembolism among cancer patients with pulmonary embolism

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          Abstract

          Background

          COPD is a well-known risk factor for venous thromboembolism (VTE) development. However, recent data showed that it was not associated with VTE recurrence risk, which excluded cancer patients. This study investigated the association of airflow limitation and VTE recurrence in cancer patients with pulmonary embolism (PE).

          Methods

          This is a retrospective cohort study of cancer patients with newly diagnosed PE at a university hospital. PE was confirmed using contrast-enhanced computed tomography scan. Airflow limitation was defined as pre-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV 1)/forced vital capacity (FVC) <0.7 within 2 years of PE diagnosis. VTE recurrence was defined as a composite of recurrence as PE or deep vein thrombosis or both.

          Results

          Among 401 cancer patients with newly diagnosed PE, spirometry-based airflow limitation was observed in 126 (31.4%) patients. Half of the patients had lung cancer, which was more common in the group with airflow limitation (65.1% vs 42.9%, p < 0.001). Symptomatic PE was present in less than half (45.4%) of the cases, and 62.6% of patients were treated for PE. During the median follow-up period of 9.7 months, VTE recurred in 49 (12.2%) patients. Compared with patients without airflow limitation, those with airflow limitation did not have an increased risk of VTE recurrence in univariate or multivariate analyses (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.29 [95% CI 0.68, 2.45]).

          Conclusion

          The presence of airflow limitation did not increase the risk of VTE recurrence in cancer patients with PE. Prospective studies are needed to validate this finding.

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          Most cited references 16

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          2014 ESC guidelines on the diagnosis and management of acute pulmonary embolism.

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            Acute pulmonary embolism: clinical outcomes in the International Cooperative Pulmonary Embolism Registry (ICOPER)

            Pulmonary embolism (PE) remains poorly understood. Rates of clinical outcomes such as death and recurrence vary widely among trials. We therefore established the International Cooperative Pulmonary Embolism Registry (ICOPER), with the aim of identifying factors associated with death. 2454 consecutive eligible patients with acute PE were registered from 52 hospitals in seven countries in Europe and North America. The primary outcome measure was all-cause mortality at 3 months. The prognostic effect of baseline factors on survival was assessed with multivariate analyses. 2110 (86.0%) patients had PE proven by necropsy, high-probability lung scan, pulmonary angiography, or venous ultrasonography plus high clinical suspicion; ICOPER accepted without independent review diagnoses and interpretation of imaging provided by participating centres; 3-month follow-up was completed in 98.0% of patients. The overall crude mortality rate at 3 months was 17.4% (426 of 2454 deaths, including 52 patients lost to follow-up): 179 of 397 (45.1%) deaths were ascribed to PE and 70 of 397 (17.6%) to cancer, and no information on the cause of death was available for 29 patients. After exclusion of 61 patients in whom PE was first discovered at necropsy, the mortality rate at 3 months was 15.3% (365 of 2393 deaths). On multiple-regression modelling, age over 70 years (hazard ratio 1.6 [95% CI 1.1-2.3]), cancer (2.3 [1.5-3.5]), congestive heart failure (2.4 [1.5-3.7]), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (1.8 [1.2-2.7]), systolic arterial hypotension (2.9 [1.7-5.0]), tachypnoea (2.0 [1.2-3.2]), and right-ventricular hypokinesis on echocardiography (2.0 [1.3-2.9]) were identified as significant prognostic factors. PE remains an important clinical problem with a high mortality rate. Data from ICOPER provide rates and highlight adverse prognostic categories that will help in planning of future trials of high-risk PE patients.
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              Epidemiology of venous thromboembolism.

               John Heit (2015)
              Thrombosis can affect any venous circulation. Venous thromboembolism (VTE) includes deep-vein thrombosis of the leg or pelvis, and its complication, pulmonary embolism. VTE is a fairly common disease, particularly in older age, and is associated with reduced survival, substantial health-care costs, and a high rate of recurrence. VTE is a complex (multifactorial) disease, involving interactions between acquired or inherited predispositions to thrombosis and various risk factors. Major risk factors for incident VTE include hospitalization for surgery or acute illness, active cancer, neurological disease with leg paresis, nursing-home confinement, trauma or fracture, superficial vein thrombosis, and-in women-pregnancy and puerperium, oral contraception, and hormone therapy. Although independent risk factors for incident VTE and predictors of VTE recurrence have been identified, and effective primary and secondary prophylaxis is available, the occurrence of VTE seems to be fairly constant, or even increasing.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                International Journal of COPD
                International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
                Dove Medical Press
                1176-9106
                1178-2005
                2018
                20 March 2018
                : 13
                : 937-943
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea
                [2 ]Department of Clinical Research Design and Evaluation, SAIHST, Sungkyunkwan University, Seoul, South Korea
                [3 ]Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Heart Vascular Stroke Institute, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Hye Yun Park, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 81 Irwon-ro, Gangnam-gu, Seoul 06351, South Korea, Tel +82 2 3410 3429, Fax +82 2 3410 3849, Email hyeyunpark@ 123456skku.edu
                Eun Kyoung Kim, Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Heart Vascular Stroke Institute, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 81 Irwon-ro, Gangnam-gu, Seoul 06351, South Korea, Tel +82 2 3410 3419, Fax +82 2 3410 3849, Email ekbobi.kim@ 123456samsung.com
                [*]

                These authors contributed equally to this work

                Article
                copd-13-937
                10.2147/COPD.S156130
                5865583
                © 2018 Shin et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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                Original Research

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