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      An Online Application for Retinoblastoma Surveillance

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          Background: Retinoblastoma (RB) is a potentially heritable childhood cancer that is vision- and life-threatening. Assessing the risk of inheriting RB is important for structuring ophthalmic and genetic screening of family members. Purpose: To create a free online application that integrates phenotypic, genetic, and familial relationships with clinical best practice surveillance guidelines for families with RB. Methods: The risk of germline RB1 gene mutation was assessed for first- and second-degree relatives of a proband under variable clinical scenarios, integrating age, phenotype, relationship data, and genotype (germline RB1 mutation status: detected, undetected, not tested). Based on the assessed risk of a germline RB1 mutation, recommendations regarding further genetic testing as well as ophthalmic surveillance were derived from consensus guidelines. Results: The recommendations depend on the RB1 germline mutation status (detected, undetected, not tested), which were further subcategorized by the results of tumor phenotype, relationship to proband, age of the relative, and family structure. The online application is available at https://nakul-singh.shinyapps.io/RB_Screening_rec/. Conclusions: The assessed risk of germline RB1 mutation determines ophthalmic surveillance recommendations. The tool may have most value in regions where access to specialized care is limited.

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          Most cited references 15

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          Sensitive and efficient detection of RB1 gene mutations enhances care for families with retinoblastoma.

          Timely molecular diagnosis of RB1 mutations enables earlier treatment, lower risk, and better health outcomes for patients with retinoblastoma; empowers families to make informed family-planning decisions; and costs less than conventional surveillance. However, complexity has hindered clinical implementation of molecular diagnosis. The majority of RB1 mutations are unique and distributed throughout the RB1 gene, with no real hot spots. We devised a sensitive and efficient strategy to identify RB1 mutations that combines quantitative multiplex polymerase chain reaction (QM-PCR), double-exon sequencing, and promoter-targeted methylation-sensitive PCR. Optimization of test order by stochastic dynamic programming and the development of allele-specific PCR for four recurrent point mutations decreased the estimated turnaround time to <3 wk and decreased direct costs by one-third. The multistep method reported here detected 89% (199/224) of mutations in bilaterally affected probands and both mutant alleles in 84% (112/134) of tumors from unilaterally affected probands. For 23 of 27 exons and the promoter region, QM-PCR was a highly accurate measure of deletions and insertions (accuracy 95%). By revealing those family members who did not carry the mutation found in the related proband, molecular analysis enabled 97 at-risk children from 20 representative families to avoid 313 surveillance examinations under anesthetic and 852 clinic visits. The average savings in direct costs from clinical examinations avoided by children in these families substantially exceeded the cost of molecular testing. Moreover, health care savings continue to accrue, as children in succeeding generations avoid unnecessary repeated anaesthetics and examinations.
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            Genetics and Molecular Diagnostics in Retinoblastoma--An Update.

            Retinoblastoma is the prototype genetic cancer: in one or both eyes of young children, most retinoblastomas are initiated by biallelic mutation of the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor gene, RB1, in a developing retinal cell. All those with bilateral retinoblastoma have heritable cancer, although 95% have not inherited the RB1 mutation. Non-heritable retinoblastoma is always unilateral, with 98% caused by loss of both RB1 alleles from the tumor, whereas 2% have normal RB1 in tumors initiated by amplification of the MYCN oncogene. Good understanding of retinoblastoma genetics supports optimal care for retinoblastoma children and their families. Retinoblastoma is the first cancer to officially acknowledge the seminal role of genetics in cancer, by incorporating "H" into the eighth edition of cancer staging (2017): those who carry the RB1 cancer-predisposing gene are H1; those proven to not carry the familial RB1 mutation are H0; and those at unknown risk are HX. We suggest H0* be used for those with residual <1% risk to carry a RB1 mutation due to undetectable mosaicism. Loss of RB1 from a susceptible developing retinal cell initiates the benign precursor, retinoma. Progressive genomic changes result in retinoblastoma, and cancer progression ensues with increasing genomic disarray. Looking forward, novel therapies are anticipated from studies of retinoblastoma and metastatic tumor cells and the second primary cancers that the carriers of RB1 mutations are at high risk to develop. Here, we summarize the concepts of retinoblastoma genetics for ophthalmologists in a question/answer format to assist in the care of patients and their families.
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              Patterns of risk of hereditary retinoblastoma and applications to genetic counselling.

              A registry including information about nearly 1,600 cases of retinoblastoma diagnosed in Britain has been created at the Childhood Cancer Research Group. Cases have been classified as 'old germ cell mutation', 'new germ cell mutation' or 'sporadic non-hereditary'. For a population-based group of 918 cases diagnosed between 1962 and 1985 we have calculated the proportions of unilateral/bilateral and hereditary/non-hereditary cases. Bilateral cases represent 40% of the total number over this period; the proportion known to be hereditary is 44%, a higher proportion than has been reported elsewhere. By following up selected groups of cases, an estimate has been made of the proportions of siblings of retinoblastoma patients and offspring of survivors from retinoblastoma who are themselves affected with the disease. Where there is no previous family history, the risk for siblings of retinoblastoma patients of developing the disease is approximately 2% if the disease in the affected child is bilateral and 1% if it is unilateral, assuming that there are no other siblings; if there are unaffected siblings the risks for subsequent children are lower. Children of patients with hereditary retinoblastoma have a one in two chance of carrying the germ cell mutation and for those who are carriers the probability of developing retinoblastoma is very close to the accepted figure of 90% if the parents have bilateral retinoblastoma but probably less if they have the unilateral form. For children of patients not known to be carriers, the probability of developing retinoblastoma is estimated to be about 1%, considerably lower than the previously accepted figure of about 5%. Retinoblastoma kindreds consist mainly of bilateral cases but there is evidence that some kindreds have a high proportion of unilateral cases. The ways in which these findings may be used in conjunction with modern techniques of molecular biology for prenatal and postnatal genetic counselling are discussed.

                Author and article information

                Ocular Oncology and Pathology
                S. Karger AG
                October 2020
                10 March 2020
                : 6
                : 5
                : 376-380
                Cleveland Clinic Cole Eye Institute, Cleveland, Ohio, USA
                Author notes
                *Arun D. Singh, MD, Department of Ophthalmic Oncology, Cleveland Clinic Cole Eye Institute, 9500 Euclid Avenue, Desk i32, Cleveland, OH 44195 (USA), singha@ccf.org
                505751 Ocul Oncol Pathol 2020;6:376–380
                © 2020 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 1, Pages: 5
                Research Article


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