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      AMF-26, a Novel Inhibitor of the Golgi System, Targeting ADP-ribosylation Factor 1 (Arf1) with Potential for Cancer Therapy*

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          Background: Golgi is a potential target for cancer treatment, but no inhibitor became an anticancer drug.

          Results: Using a unique bioinformatics approach, we identified a novel Golgi inhibitor, AMF-26, targeting Arf1 activation and possessing potent antitumor activity.

          Conclusion: AMF-26 is a promising new anticancer drug lead.

          Significance: Our data indicate that Arf1 activation is a promising target for cancer treatment.


          ADP-ribosylation factor 1 (Arf1) plays a major role in mediating vesicular transport. Brefeldin A (BFA), a known inhibitor of the Arf1-guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) interaction, is highly cytotoxic. Therefore, interaction of Arf1 with ArfGEF is an attractive target for cancer treatment. However, BFA and its derivatives have not progressed beyond the pre-clinical stage of drug development because of their poor bioavailability. Here, we aimed to identify novel inhibitors of the Arf1-ArfGEF interaction that display potent antitumor activity in vivo but with a chemical structure distinct from that of BFA. We exploited a panel of 39 cell lines (termed JFCR39) coupled with a drug sensitivity data base and COMPARE algorithm, resulting in the identification of a possible novel Arf1-ArfGEF inhibitor AMF-26, which differed structurally from BFA. By using a pulldown assay with GGA3-conjugated beads, we demonstrated that AMF-26 inhibited Arf1 activation. Subsequently, AMF-26 induced Golgi disruption, apoptosis, and cell growth inhibition. Computer modeling/molecular dynamics (MD) simulation suggested that AMF-26 bound to the contact surface of the Arf1-Sec7 domain where BFA bound. AMF-26 affected membrane traffic, including the cis-Golgi and trans-Golgi networks, and the endosomal systems. Furthermore, using AMF-26 and its derivatives, we demonstrated that there was a significant correlation between cell growth inhibition and Golgi disruption. In addition, orally administrated AMF-26 (83 mg/kg of body weight; 5 days) induced complete regression of human breast cancer BSY-1 xenografts in vivo, suggesting that AMF-26 is a novel anticancer drug candidate that inhibits the Golgi system, targeting Arf1 activation.

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          Most cited references 46

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          The NCI60 human tumour cell line anticancer drug screen.

          The US National Cancer Institute (NCI) 60 human tumour cell line anticancer drug screen (NCI60) was developed in the late 1980s as an in vitro drug-discovery tool intended to supplant the use of transplantable animal tumours in anticancer drug screening. This screening model was rapidly recognized as a rich source of information about the mechanisms of growth inhibition and tumour-cell kill. Recently, its role has changed to that of a service screen supporting the cancer research community. Here I review the development, use and productivity of the screen, highlighting several outcomes that have contributed to advances in cancer chemotherapy.
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            Feasibility of a high-flux anticancer drug screen using a diverse panel of cultured human tumor cell lines.

            We describe here the development and implementation of a pilot-scale, in vitro, anticancer drug screen utilizing a panel of 60 human tumor cell lines organized into subpanels representing leukemia, melanoma, and cancers of the lung, colon, kidney, ovary, and central nervous system. The ultimate goal of this disease-oriented screen is to facilitate the discovery of new compounds with potential cell line-specific and/or subpanel-specific antitumor activity. In the current screening protocol, each cell line is inoculated onto microtiter plates, then preincubated for 24-28 hours. Subsequently, test agents are added in five 10-fold dilutions and the culture is incubated for an additional 48 hours. For each test agent, a dose-response profile is generated. End-point determinations of the cell viability or cell growth are performed by in situ fixation of cells, followed by staining with a protein-binding dye, sulforhodamine B (SRB). The SRB binds to the basic amino acids of cellular macromolecules; the solubilized stain is measured spectrophotometrically to determine relative cell growth or viability in treated and untreated cells. Following the pilot screening studies, a screening rate of 400 compounds per week has been consistently achieved.
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              Rapid redistribution of Golgi proteins into the ER in cells treated with brefeldin A: Evidence for membrane cycling from Golgi to ER

              In cells treated with brefeldin A (BFA), movement of newly synthesized membrane proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the Golgi apparatus was blocked. Surprisingly, the glycoproteins retained in the ER were rapidly processed by cis/medial Golgi enzymes but not by trans Golgi enzymes. An explanation for these observations was provided from morphological studies at both the light and electron microscopic levels using markers for the cis/medial and trans Golgi. They revealed a rapid and dramatic redistribution to the ER of components of the cis/medial but not the trans Golgi in response to treatment with BFA. Upon removal of BFA, the morphology of the Golgi apparatus was rapidly reestablished and proteins normally transported out of the ER were efficiently and rapidly sorted to their final destinations. These results suggest that BFA disrupts a dynamic membrane-recycling pathway between the ER and cis/medial Golgi, effectively blocking membrane transport out of but not back to the ER.

                Author and article information

                J Biol Chem
                The Journal of Biological Chemistry
                American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (9650 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20814, U.S.A. )
                3 February 2012
                9 December 2011
                9 December 2011
                : 287
                : 6
                : 3885-3897
                From the Division of []Molecular Pharmacology and
                []Experimental Chemotherapy, Cancer Chemotherapy Center, Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, Tokyo 135-8550, Japan,
                the [§ ]School of Pharmacy, Kitasato University, Tokyo 108-8641, Japan, and
                the []Laboratory of Applied Molecular Biology, Division of Applied Biochemistry, Graduate School of Agriculture and Biological Sciences, Osaka Prefecture University, Osaka 599-8531, Japan
                Author notes
                [1 ] To whom correspondence should be addressed. Tel.: 81-3-3520-0111; Fax: 81-3-3570-0484; E-mail: yamori@ .
                © 2012 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

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