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      Comparison of changes in lipid profiles of premenopausal women with early-stage breast cancer treated with different endocrine therapies

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      1 , 1 , 1 , , 2 ,
      Scientific Reports
      Nature Publishing Group UK
      Cancer, Health care, Oncology, Risk factors

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          Abstract

          Adjuvant endocrine therapy improves the prognosis of early breast cancer with hormone receptor positivity. However, there is no systematic report on the effect of endocrine therapy (particularly ovarian function suppression, OFS) on serum lipids in premenopausal women. This retrospective cohort study aimed to determine whether various endocrine treatments had different effects on blood lipids. This study enrolled 160 premenopausal patients with stage I–III breast cancer in eastern China. The initial diagnostic information was retrieved from patient's medical records, including age at the time of diagnosis, tumor characteristics, anticancer treatment and past medical history. The changes in blood lipids in patients receiving different types of endocrine therapy were compared at the 3rd, 6th, 12th, and 24th months after initiating endocrine therapy. Generalized linear mixed model was used in our analyses. Our data revealed that low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels in patients with tamoxifen (TAM) were significantly lower in the 6th, 12th, and 24th months than that in the 3rd month, while high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels in the 6th, 12th, and 24th months were significantly higher than that in the 3rd month, indicating that blood lipid levels generally improved with time. While in TAM plus OFS group, HDL-C levels were significantly higher in the 24th month than in the 3rd month, total cholesterol (TC) levels were significantly higher in the 24th month than in the 6th month. The lipid profiles of OFS plus aromatase inhibitor (AI) group did not show significant differences at any time point but were significantly higher than those of the other two groups especially in LDL and TC. TAM group tended to have lower serum lipid levels. With longer follow-up, no statistically significant difference in values was observed between TAM and TAM plus OFS groups at various time points. Compared with the other two groups, OFS plus AI group presented an increasing trend toward LDL-C and TC. The risk of dyslipidemia requires further investigation using a large sample size.

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          Most cited references33

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          Global cancer statistics 2020: GLOBOCAN estimates of incidence and mortality worldwide for 36 cancers in 185 countries

          This article provides an update on the global cancer burden using the GLOBOCAN 2020 estimates of cancer incidence and mortality produced by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Worldwide, an estimated 19.3 million new cancer cases (18.1 million excluding nonmelanoma skin cancer) and almost 10.0 million cancer deaths (9.9 million excluding nonmelanoma skin cancer) occurred in 2020. Female breast cancer has surpassed lung cancer as the most commonly diagnosed cancer, with an estimated 2.3 million new cases (11.7%), followed by lung (11.4%), colorectal (10.0 %), prostate (7.3%), and stomach (5.6%) cancers. Lung cancer remained the leading cause of cancer death, with an estimated 1.8 million deaths (18%), followed by colorectal (9.4%), liver (8.3%), stomach (7.7%), and female breast (6.9%) cancers. Overall incidence was from 2-fold to 3-fold higher in transitioned versus transitioning countries for both sexes, whereas mortality varied <2-fold for men and little for women. Death rates for female breast and cervical cancers, however, were considerably higher in transitioning versus transitioned countries (15.0 vs 12.8 per 100,000 and 12.4 vs 5.2 per 100,000, respectively). The global cancer burden is expected to be 28.4 million cases in 2040, a 47% rise from 2020, with a larger increase in transitioning (64% to 95%) versus transitioned (32% to 56%) countries due to demographic changes, although this may be further exacerbated by increasing risk factors associated with globalization and a growing economy. Efforts to build a sustainable infrastructure for the dissemination of cancer prevention measures and provision of cancer care in transitioning countries is critical for global cancer control.
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            Adjuvant Exemestane with Ovarian Suppression in Premenopausal Breast Cancer

            Adjuvant therapy with an aromatase inhibitor improves outcomes, as compared with tamoxifen, in postmenopausal women with hormone-receptor-positive breast cancer.
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              A randomized trial of letrozole in postmenopausal women after five years of tamoxifen therapy for early-stage breast cancer.

              In hormone-dependent breast cancer, five years of postoperative tamoxifen therapy--but not tamoxifen therapy of longer duration--prolongs disease-free and overall survival. The aromatase inhibitor letrozole, by suppressing estrogen production, might improve the outcome after the discontinuation of tamoxifen therapy. We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to test the effectiveness of five years of letrozole therapy in postmenopausal women with breast cancer who have completed five years of tamoxifen therapy. The primary end point was disease-free survival. A total of 5187 women were enrolled (median follow-up, 2.4 years). At the first interim analysis, there were 207 local or metastatic recurrences of breast cancer or new primary cancers in the contralateral breast--75 in the letrozole group and 132 in the placebo group--with estimated four-year disease-free survival rates of 93 percent and 87 percent, respectively, in the two groups (P< or =0.001 for the comparison of disease-free survival). A total of 42 women in the placebo group and 31 women in the letrozole group died (P=0.25 for the comparison of overall survival). Low-grade hot flashes, arthritis, arthralgia, and myalgia were more frequent in the letrozole group, but vaginal bleeding was less frequent. There were new diagnoses of osteoporosis in 5.8 percent of the women in the letrozole group and 4.5 percent of the women in the placebo group (P=0.07); the rates of fracture were similar. After the first interim analysis, the independent data and safety monitoring committee recommended termination of the trial and prompt communication of the results to the participants. As compared with placebo, letrozole therapy after the completion of standard tamoxifen treatment significantly improves disease-free survival. Copyright 2003 Massachusetts Medical Society
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                denyiweit@zju.edu.cn
                zuci@zju.edu.cn
                Journal
                Sci Rep
                Sci Rep
                Scientific Reports
                Nature Publishing Group UK (London )
                2045-2322
                31 December 2022
                31 December 2022
                2022
                : 12
                : 22650
                Affiliations
                [1 ]GRID grid.13402.34, ISNI 0000 0004 1759 700X, Department of Breast Surgery, the Second Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, , Zhejiang University, ; Hangzhou, 310009 China
                [2 ]GRID grid.13402.34, ISNI 0000 0004 1759 700X, Cancer Institute (The Key Laboratory of Cancer Prevention and Intervention, China National Ministry of Education), Department of Surgical Oncology, the Second Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, , Zhejiang University, ; Hangzhou, 310009 China
                Article
                27008
                10.1038/s41598-022-27008-x
                9805421
                36587111
                93504eeb-bb62-4134-930c-44c4602129e2
                © The Author(s) 2022

                Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

                History
                : 1 August 2022
                : 23 December 2022
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                © The Author(s) 2022

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                cancer,health care,oncology,risk factors
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                cancer, health care, oncology, risk factors

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