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      Nutritional evaluation of some potential wild edible plants of North Eastern region of India

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          Abstract

          Introduction

          India’s north-eastern hill region (NEH) is one of the biodiversity hotspots, inhabited by several tribal communities still maintaining their traditional food habits. Much of their food resources are drawn from wild sources.

          Materials and methods

          Fourteen species of wild edible plants of high ethnic importance were collected from remote localities of Nagaland and Meghalaya states of the NEH region of India for nutritional profiling. Nutritional profiling of leaves of six species comprising Gynura cusimbua, Garcinia cowa, Herpetospermum operculatum, Plukenetia corniculata, Trichodesma khasianum , and Elatostemma sessile is conducted first time under present study. Samples were analyzed as per the Official Method of Analysis (AOAC) and standard methods.

          Results and discussion

          The range of variation in proximate composition was observed for moisture (72–92%), protein (1.71–6.66%), fat (0.22–1.36%), dietary fibre (5.16–14.58%), sugar (0.30–3.41%), and starch (0.07–2.14%). The highest protein content (6.66%) was recorded in Herpetospermum operculatum, followed by Trichodesma khasianum (5.89%) and Plukenetia corniculata (5.27%). Incidentally, two of these also have high iron (>7.0 mg/100 g) and high zinc (>2.0 mg/100 g) contents, except Trichodesma khasianum, which has low zinc content. High antioxidant activities in terms of gallic acid equivalent (GAE) by the cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) method ranged from 1.10 to 8.40 mg/100 g, and by the Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) method ranged from 0.10 to 1.9 mg/100 g, while phenol content ranged between 0.30 and 6.00 mg/100 g. These wild vegetables have high potential because of their nutritional properties and are fully capable of enhancing sustainability and improving ecosystem services. Efforts were also initiated to mainstream these resources, mainly for widening the food basket of native peoples.

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          Most cited references57

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          The ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) as a measure of "antioxidant power": the FRAP assay.

          A simple, automated test measuring the ferric reducing ability of plasma, the FRAP assay, is presented as a novel method for assessing "antioxidant power." Ferric to ferrous ion reduction at low pH causes a colored ferrous-tripyridyltriazine complex to form. FRAP values are obtained by comparing the absorbance change at 593 nm in test reaction mixtures with those containing ferrous ions in known concentration. Absorbance changes are linear over a wide concentration range with antioxidant mixtures, including plasma, and with solutions containing one antioxidant in purified form. There is no apparent interaction between antioxidants. Measured stoichiometric factors of Trolox, alpha-tocopherol, ascorbic acid, and uric acid are all 2.0; that of bilirubin is 4.0. Activity of albumin is very low. Within- and between-run CVs are <1.0 and <3.0%, respectively, at 100-1000 micromol/liter. FRAP values of fresh plasma of healthy Chinese adults: 612-1634 micromol/liter (mean, 1017; SD, 206; n = 141). The FRAP assay is inexpensive, reagents are simple to prepare, results are highly reproducible, and the procedure is straightforward and speedy. The FRAP assay offers a putative index of antioxidant, or reducing, potential of biological fluids within the technological reach of every laboratory and researcher interested in oxidative stress and its effects.
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            Novel total antioxidant capacity index for dietary polyphenols and vitamins C and E, using their cupric ion reducing capability in the presence of neocuproine: CUPRAC method.

            The chemical diversity of antioxidants makes it difficult to separate and quantify antioxidants from the vegetable matrix. Therefore, it is desirable to establish a method that can measure the total antioxidant activity level directly from vegetable extracts. The current literature clearly states that there is no "total antioxidant" as a nutritional index available for food labeling because of the lack of standard quantitation methods. Thus, this work reports the development of a simple, widely applicable antioxidant capacity index for dietary polyphenols and vitamins C and E, utilizing the copper(II)-neocuproine [Cu(II)-Nc] reagent as the chromogenic oxidizing agent. Because the copper(II) (or cupric) ion reducing ability of polyphenols is measured, the method is named by our research group "cupric reducing antioxidant capacity" abbreviated as the CUPRAC method. This method should be advantageous over the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) method because the redox chemistry of copper(II)-as opposed to that of ferric ion-involves faster kinetics. The method comprises mixing of the antioxidant solution (directly or after acid hydrolysis) with a copper(II) chloride solution, a neocuproine alcoholic solution, and an ammonium acetate aqueous buffer at pH 7 and subsequent measurement of the developed absorbance at 450 nm after 30 min. Because the color development is fast for compounds such as ascorbic acid, gallic acid, and quercetin but slow for naringin and naringenin, the latter compounds were assayed after incubation at 50 degrees C on a water bath for 20 min [after Cu(II)-Nc reagent addition] so as to force the oxidation reaction to reach completion. The flavonoid glycosides were hydrolyzed to their corresponding aglycons by refluxing in 1.2 M HCl-containing 50% MeOH so as to exert maximal reducing power toward Cu(II)-Nc. Certain compounds also needed incubation after acid hydrolysis to fully exhibit their reducing capability. The CUPRAC antioxidant capacities of synthetic mixtures of antioxidants were experimentally measured as Trolox equivalents and compared to those theoretically found by making use of the principle of additivity of absorbances assuming no chemical interaction between the mixture constituents. Because ascorbic acid is not resistant to elevated temperature incubation, it should be assayed initially by measuring the absorbance (at 450 nm) difference of original and ascorbate oxidase-added mixture solutions at the end of 1 min of Cu(II)-Nc reagent addition. Thus, the total CUPRAC antioxidant capacity of a mixture containing various antioxidants should be that finally measured after a suitable combination of hydrolysis and incubation procedures, added to the initially measured capacity due to ascorbate. The antioxidant polyphenolic compounds tested demonstrate that the highest capacities in the CUPRAC method were observed for epicatechin gallate, epigallocatechin gallate, quercetin, fisetin, epigallocatechin, catechin, and caffeic acid in this order, in accordance with theoretical expectations, because the number and position of the hydroxyl groups as well as the degree of conjugation of the whole molecule are important. The antioxidant potency of flavonoids is nearly proportional to the total number of -OH groups and is positively affected by the presence of an o-dihydroxy moiety in the B-ring. beta-Carotene, which did not react with the CUPRAC reagent in alcoholic aqueous medium, could be assayed in dichloromethane solvent. Linear calibration curves for ascorbic acid and flavonoids were redrawn in synthetic solutions containing a mixture of antioxidants, and also in real matrices such as grape and orange juices, green tea, and blackberry tea, showing an initial nonzero absorbance with the CUPRAC reagent. The parallellism of the linear calibration curves of pure compounds in a given complex matrix effectively demonstrated that there were no interferent chemical interactions among the solution constituents and that the antioxidant capacities of the tested antioxidants were additive. The CUPRAC reagent is reasonably selective, stable, easily accessible, and sensitive toward thiol-type oxidants, unlike the FRAP method. The reaction is carried out at nearly physiological pH as opposed to the unrealistic acidic pH of FRAP.
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              Screening methods to measure antioxidant activity of sorghum (sorghum bicolor) and sorghum products.

              Specialty sorghums, their brans, and baked and extruded products were analyzed for antioxidant activity using three methods: oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), 2,2'-azinobis (3-ethyl-benzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS), and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). All sorghum samples were also analyzed for phenolic contents. Both ABTS and DPPH correlated highly with ORAC (R(2) = 0.99 and 0.97, respectively, n = 18). Phenol contents of the sorghums correlated highly with their antioxidant activity measured by the three methods (R(2) >or= 0.96). The ABTS and DPPH methods, which are more cost effective and simpler, were demonstrated to have similar predictive power as ORAC on sorghum antioxidant activity. There is a need to standardize these methods to allow for data comparisons across laboratories.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Front Nutr
                Front Nutr
                Front. Nutr.
                Frontiers in Nutrition
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                2296-861X
                01 March 2023
                2023
                : 10
                : 1052086
                Affiliations
                [1] 1ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region , Umiam, Meghalaya, India
                [2] 2ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region, Nagaland Centre , Medziphema, Nagaland, India
                [3] 3ICAR-National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources , New Delhi, India
                [4] 4School of Agricultural Sciences and Rural Development , Medziphema, Nagaland, India
                Author notes

                Edited by: Shauna Downs, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, United States

                Reviewed by: Emily Merchant, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, United States; Venty Suryanti, Sebelas Maret University, Indonesia

                *Correspondence: Rakesh Bhardwaj, rakesh.bhardwaj1@ 123456icar.gov.in

                These authors have contributed equally to this work

                This article was submitted to Nutrition and Sustainable Diets, a section of the journal Frontiers in Nutrition

                Article
                10.3389/fnut.2023.1052086
                10014872
                36937351
                9350bf38-e68e-4bec-a745-639c45e52ea7
                Copyright © 2023 Talang, Yanthan, Rathi, Pradheep, Longkumer, Imsong, Singh, Assumi, Devi, Vanlalruati, Kumar, Ahlawat, Bhatt and Bhardwaj.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                History
                : 23 September 2022
                : 30 January 2023
                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 3, Equations: 0, References: 58, Pages: 8, Words: 6193
                Funding
                This work was supported through funding from ICAR, New Delhi, under in-house research projects on Germplasm Exploration and Germplasm Evaluation.
                Categories
                Nutrition
                Original Research

                proximate composition,minerals,antioxidants,ethnic foods,biodiversity

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