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      Pathogen Burden, Inflammation, Proliferation and Apoptosis in Human In-Stent Restenosis

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          Abstract

          Pathogenic events leading to in-stent restenosis (ISR) are still incompletely understood. Among others, inflammation, immune reactions, deregulated cell death and growth have been suggested. Therefore, atherectomy probes from 21 patients with symptomatic ISR were analyzed by immunohistochemistry for pathogen burden and compared to primary target lesions from 20 stable angina patients. While cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex virus, Epstein-Barr virus and Helicobacter pylori were not found in ISR, acute and/or persistent chlamydial infection were present in 6/21 of these lesions (29%). Expression of human heat shock protein 60 was found in 8/21 of probes (38%). Indicated by distinct signals of CD68, CD40 and CRP, inflammation was present in 5/21 (24%), 3/21 (14%) and 2/21 (10%) of ISR cases. Cell density of ISR was significantly higher than that of primary lesions (977 ± 315 vs. 431 ± 148 cells/mm<sup>2</sup>; p < 0.001). There was no replicating cell as shown by Ki67 or PCNA. TUNEL<sup>+</sup> cells indicating apoptosis were seen in 6/21 of ISR specimens (29%). Quantitative analysis revealed lower expression levels for each intimal determinant in ISR compared to primary atheroma (all p < 0.05). In summary, human ISR at the time of clinical presentation is characterized by low frequency of pathogen burden and inflammation, but pronounced hypercellularity, low apoptosis and absence of proliferation.

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          Most cited references 24

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          Serological evidence of an association of a novel Chlamydia, TWAR, with chronic coronary heart disease and acute myocardial infarction.

          Paired sera from 40 male patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI), 30 male patients with chronic coronary heart disease (CCHD), and 41 controls, matched for sex, age, time, and locality were investigated for antibodies to a novel type of Chlamydia sp, TWAR, and to chlamydial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) group antigen. 27 patients with AMI (68%), and 15 (50%) patients with CCHD had raised IgG (greater than or equal to 128) and/or IgA (greater than or equal to 32) titres in the microimmunofluorescence test with chlamydia TWAR. Both frequencies were significantly higher than in the controls (7, 17%). 26 (68%) of 38 patients with AMI also showed a significant seroconversion in enzyme immunoassay with LPS antigen; this response was absent in all patients with CCHD and all but 1 of the controls. Chronic chlamydial infection could be a factor in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases.
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            Morphological predictors of restenosis after coronary stenting in humans.

            Experimental studies suggest that arterial injury and inflammation lead to increased neointimal growth after stenting. Despite the increased use of coronary stents in humans, there are only limited pathological data on the morphological features of in-stent restenosis. Detailed histology was performed on 116 stents, implanted > or =90 days in 87 coronary arteries, from 56 patients (mean age, 59+/-13 years). The mean duration of stent implant was 10 months. In-stent restenosis was defined as a stent area stenosis of >75%. Lumen area increased as stent area increased (r2=0.27, P=0.0001), but there was a much stronger correlation between stent area and neointimal area (r2=0.70, P<0.0001). Arterial medial fracture was associated with a 29% increase (P<0.01) in neointimal thickness compared with arteries with an intact media. Neointimal thickness (P=0.0001), inflammatory cell density (P<0.0001), and neointimal vascular channel density (P<0.0001) were greater when struts were in contact with a ruptured arterial media compared with fibrous plaque or an intact fibrous cap. Stent strut penetration into a lipid core was associated with increased neointimal thickness (P=0.04) and inflammatory cell density (P=0.03). Neointimal inflammatory cell content was 2.4-fold greater in stents with restenosis versus no restenosis, and inflammation was associated with increased neoangiogenesis. Coronary stenting that is accompanied by medial damage or penetration of the stent into a lipid core induces increased arterial inflammation, which is associated with increased neointimal growth. These data suggest the use of stenting strategies that reduce inflammation and neoangiogenesis to reduce the incidence of restenosis.
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              Chlamydial and human heat shock protein 60s activate human vascular endothelium, smooth muscle cells, and macrophages.

              Both chlamydial and human heat shock protein 60s (HSP 60), which colocalize in human atheroma, may contribute to inflammation during atherogenesis. We tested the hypothesis that chlamydial or human HSP 60 activates human endothelial cells (ECs), smooth muscle cells (SMCs), and monocyte-derived macrophages. We examined the expression of adhesion molecules such as endothelial-leukocyte adhesion molecule-1 (E-selectin), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), and the production of the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6). We also tested whether either HSP 60 induces nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB), which contributes to the gene expression of these molecules. Either chlamydial or human HSP 60 induced E-selectin, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1 expression on ECs similar to levels induced by Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Each HSP 60 also significantly induced IL-6 production by ECs, SMCs, and macrophages to an extent similar to that induced by E. coli LPS, as assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In ECs, either HSP 60 triggered activation of NF-kappaB complexes containing p65 and p50 Rel proteins. Heat treatment abolished all these effects, but did not alter the ability of E. coli LPS to induce these functions. Chlamydial and human HSP 60s therefore activate human vascular cell functions relevant to atherogenesis and lesional complications. These findings help to elucidate the mechanisms by which a chronic asymptomatic chlamydial infection might contribute to the pathophysiology of atheroma.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                JVR
                J Vasc Res
                10.1159/issn.1018-1172
                Journal of Vascular Research
                S. Karger AG
                1018-1172
                1423-0135
                2004
                December 2004
                03 December 2004
                : 41
                : 6
                : 525-534
                Affiliations
                aDepartment of Cardiology, University of Bonn, Bonn; bCardiology Division, University of Munich, Munich, and cInstitute of Pathology, University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany
                Article
                81809 J Vasc Res 2004;41:525–534
                10.1159/000081809
                15528935
                © 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 4, Tables: 2, References: 38, Pages: 10
                Categories
                Research Paper

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