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      A Flexible Multiring Concentric Electrode for Non-Invasive Identification of Intestinal Slow Waves

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          Abstract

          Developing new types of optimized electrodes for specific biomedical applications can substantially improve the quality of the sensed signals. Concentric ring electrodes have been shown to provide enhanced spatial resolution to that of conventional disc electrodes. A sensor with different electrode sizes and configurations (monopolar, bipolar, etc.) that provides simultaneous records would be very helpful for studying the best signal-sensing arrangement. A 5-pole electrode with an inner disc and four concentric rings of different sizes was developed and tested on surface intestinal myoelectrical recordings from healthy humans. For good adaptation to a curved body surface, the electrode was screen-printed onto a flexible polyester substrate. To facilitate clinical use, it is self-adhesive, incorporates a single connector and can perform dry or wet (with gel) recordings. The results show it to be a versatile electrode that can evaluate the optimal configuration for the identification of the intestinal slow wave and reject undesired interference. A bipolar concentric record with an outer ring diameter of 30 mm, a foam-free adhesive material, and electrolytic gel gave the best results.

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          Most cited references 40

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          Novel dry polymer foam electrodes for long-term EEG measurement.

          A novel dry foam-based electrode for long-term EEG measurement was proposed in this study. In general, the conventional wet electrodes are most frequently used for EEG measurement. However, they require skin preparation and conduction gels to reduce the skin-electrode contact impedance. The aforementioned procedures when wet electrodes were used usually make trouble to users easily. In order to overcome the aforesaid issues, a novel dry foam electrode, fabricated by electrically conductive polymer foam covered by a conductive fabric, was proposed. By using conductive fabric, which provides partly polarizable electric characteristic, our dry foam electrode exhibits both polarization and conductivity, and can be used to measure biopotentials without skin preparation and conduction gel. In addition, the foam substrate of our dry electrode allows a high geometric conformity between the electrode and irregular scalp surface to maintain low skin-electrode interface impedance, even under motion. The experimental results presented that the dry foam electrode performs better for long-term EEG measurement, and is practicable for daily life applications. © 2011 IEEE
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            Novel dry electrodes for ECG monitoring.

            The development, fabrication and characterization of two novel dry bioelectrodes--conductive and capacitive ones--for biopotential monitoring are presented. The new electrodes have the potential to improve the applicability of dry electrodes in ambulant recording of ECG by reducing motion artifacts as well as the contact impedance to the skin. Furthermore, a passive filter network is integrated into the new electrodes to suppress slow offset fluctuation of the ECG signal caused e.g. by motions like breathing or changes in the electrode-skin interface properties. Compared to standard gel electrodes these new electrodes exhibit equivalent and superior contact impedances and biosignals. The integrated filter network effectively suppresses fluctuating offset potentials.
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              Electrogastrography: basic knowledge, recording, processing and its clinical applications.

               Jun Chang (2005)
              The slow wave (SW) of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract mainly functions to trigger the onset of spike to elicit smooth muscle contraction, which provides the essential power of motility. Smooth muscle myogenic control activity or SW is believed to originate in the interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC). The electrical coupling promotes interaction between muscle cells, and ICC additionally contribute to SW rhythmicity. Stomach SW originates in the proximal body showing the continuous rhythmic change in the membrane potential and propagates normally to the distal antrum with a regular rhythm of approximately 3 c.p.m. A technique using electrodes positioned on the abdominal skin to pick up stomach rhythmic SW refers to electrogastrography (EGG). The stomach SW amplitude is very weak, while many visceral organs also produce rhythmic electricities, for example heartbeat, respiration, other organs of the GI tract and even body movements. Thus noise other than SW should be filtered out during the recording, while motion artifacts are visually examined and deleted. Finally, the best signal among all recordings is selected to compute EGG parameters based on spectral analysis. The latter is done not only to tranform frequency domain to time domain but also to provide information of time variability in frequency. Obtained EGG parameters include dominant frequency/power, % normal rhythm, % bradygastria, % tachygastria, instability coefficient and power ratio. Clinical experience in EGG has been markedly accumulated since its rapid evolution. In contrast, lack of standardized methodology in terms of electrode positions, recording periods, test meals, analytic software and normal reference values makes the significance of EGG recording controversial. Unlike imaging or manometrical studies, stomach motility disorders are not diagnosed based only on abnormal EGG parameters. Limitations of EGG recording, processing, computation, acceptable normal parameters, technique and reading should be known to conduct subjective assessments when EGG is used to resolve stomach dysfunction. Understanding basic SW physiology, recording methodology and indications may open EGG as a new domain to approach the stomach motor dysfunction.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Sensors (Basel)
                Sensors (Basel)
                sensors
                Sensors (Basel, Switzerland)
                MDPI
                1424-8220
                30 January 2018
                February 2018
                : 18
                : 2
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Centro de Investigación e Innovación en Bioingeniería, Universitat Politècnica de València, Valencia 46022, Spain; vfzena@ 123456ci2b.upv.es (V.Z.-G.); yiye@ 123456ci2b.upv.es (Y.Y.-L.); gprats@ 123456ci2b.upv.es (G.P.-B.)
                [2 ]Instituto Interuniversitario de Investigación de Reconocimiento Molecular y Desarrollo Tecnológico, Universitat Politècnica de València, Valencia 46022, Spain; egarciab@ 123456eln.upv.es
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: jgarciac@ 123456ci2b.upv.es ; Tel.: +34-963-877-007 (ext. 76027 & 67041)
                Article
                sensors-18-00396
                10.3390/s18020396
                5855016
                29385719
                © 2018 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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