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      Culture-Modified Bone Marrow Cells Attenuate Cardiac and Renal Injury in a Chronic Kidney Disease Rat Model via a Novel Antifibrotic Mechanism

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          Abstract

          Background

          Most forms of chronic kidney disease are characterized by progressive renal and cardiac fibrosis leading to dysfunction. Preliminary evidence suggests that various bone marrow-derived cell populations have antifibrotic effects. In exploring the therapeutic potential of bone marrow derived cells in chronic cardio-renal disease, we examined the anti-fibrotic effects of bone marrow-derived culture modified cells (CMCs) and stromal cells (SCs).

          Methodology/Principal Findings

          In vitro, CMC-conditioned medium, but not SC-conditioned medium, inhibited fibroblast collagen production and cell signalling in response to transforming growth factor-ß. The antifibrotic effects of CMCs and SCs were then evaluated in the 5/6 nephrectomy model of chronic cardio-renal disease. While intravascular infusion of 10 6 SCs had no effect, 10 6 CMCs reduced renal fibrosis compared to saline in the glomeruli (glomerulosclerosis index: 0.8±0.1 v 1.9±0.2 arbitrary units) and the tubulointersitium (% area type IV collagen: 1.2±0.3 v 8.4±2.0, p<0.05 for both). Similarly, 10 6 CMCs reduced cardiac fibrosis compared to saline (% area stained with picrosirius red: 3.2±0.3 v 5.1±0.4, p<0.05), whereas 10 6 SCs had no effect. Structural changes induced by CMC therapy were accompanied by improved function, as reflected by reductions in plasma creatinine (58±3 v 81±11 µmol/L), urinary protein excretion (9×/÷1 v 64×/÷1 mg/day), and diastolic cardiac stiffness (left ventricular end-diastolic pressure-volume relationship: 0.030±0.003 v 0.058±0.011 mm Hg/µL, p<0.05 for all). Despite substantial improvements in structure and function, only rare CMCs were present in the kidney and heart, whereas abundant CMCs were detected in the liver and spleen.

          Conclusions/Significance

          Together, these findings provide the first evidence suggesting that CMCs, but not SCs, exert a protective action in cardio-renal disease and that these effects may be mediated by the secretion of diffusible anti-fibrotic factor(s).

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          Most cited references 44

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          Transforming growth factor beta in tissue fibrosis.

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            Common and unique mechanisms regulate fibrosis in various fibroproliferative diseases.

             Thomas Wynn (2007)
            Fibroproliferative diseases, including the pulmonary fibroses, systemic sclerosis, liver cirrhosis, cardiovascular disease, progressive kidney disease, and macular degeneration, are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality and can affect all tissues and organ systems. Fibrotic tissue remodeling can also influence cancer metastasis and accelerate chronic graft rejection in transplant recipients. Nevertheless, despite its enormous impact on human health, there are currently no approved treatments that directly target the mechanism(s) of fibrosis. The primary goals of this Review series on fibrotic diseases are to discuss some of the major fibroproliferative diseases and to identify the common and unique mechanisms of fibrogenesis that might be exploited in the development of effective antifibrotic therapies.
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              Therapeutic angiogenesis for patients with limb ischaemia by autologous transplantation of bone-marrow cells: a pilot study and a randomised controlled trial.

              Preclinical studies have established that implantation of bone marrow-mononuclear cells, including endothelial progenitor cells, into ischaemic limbs increases collateral vessel formation. We investigated efficacy and safety of autologous implantation of bone marrow-mononuclear cells in patients with ischaemic limbs because of peripheral arterial disease. We first did a pilot study, in which 25 patients (group A) with unilateral ischaemia of the leg were injected with bone marrow-mononuclear cells into the gastrocnemius of the ischaemic limb and with saline into the less ischaemic limb. We then recruited 22 patients (group B) with bilateral leg ischaemia, who were randomly injected with bone marrow-mononuclear cells in one leg and peripheral blood-mononuclear cells in the other as a control. Primary outcomes were safety and feasibility of treatment, based on ankle-brachial index (ABI) and rest pain, and analysis was per protocol. Two patients were excluded from group B after randomisation. At 4 weeks in group B patients, ABI was significantly improved in legs injected with bone marrow-mononuclear cells compared with those injected with peripheral blood-mononuclear cells (difference 0.09 [95% CI 0.06-0.11]; p<0.0001). Similar improvements were seen for transcutaneous oxygen pressure (13 [9-17]; p<0.0001), rest pain (-0.85 [-1.6 to -0.12]; p=0.025), and pain-free walking time (1.2 [0.7-1.7]; p=0.0001). These improvements were sustained at 24 weeks. Similar improvements were seen in group A patients. Two patients in group A died after myocardial infarction unrelated to treatment. Autologous implantation of bone marrow-mononuclear cells could be safe and effective for achievement of therapeutic angiogenesis, because of the natural ability of marrow cells to supply endothelial progenitor cells and to secrete various angiogenic factors or cytokines.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: Editor
                Journal
                PLoS One
                plos
                plosone
                PLoS ONE
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, USA )
                1932-6203
                2010
                4 March 2010
                : 5
                : 3
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Keenan Research Centre of the Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute, St. Michael's Hospital, Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
                [2 ]Department of Medicine, St. Vincent's Hospital, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
                [3 ]Department of Medicine, Princess Margaret Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
                [4 ]Ottawa Health Research Institute, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
                University of Cincinnati, United States of America
                Author notes

                Conceived and designed the experiments: DY KAC AA AK PAM DJS RG. Performed the experiments: DY KAC CL KT SLA YZ. Analyzed the data: DY KAC AA SLA YZ DJK. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: AA CL MAK JT DJK HLP AK PAM DJS. Wrote the paper: DY KAC AA RG.

                Article
                09-PONE-RA-15102R1
                10.1371/journal.pone.0009543
                2832011
                20209052
                Yuen et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
                Page count
                Pages: 13
                Categories
                Research Article
                Cardiovascular Disorders/Heart Failure
                Nephrology/Chronic Kidney Disease
                Nephrology/Renal Physiology

                Uncategorized

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