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Collagen-Based Biomaterials for Tissue Engineering Applications

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      Abstract

      Collagen is the most widely distributed class of proteins in the human body. The use of collagen-based biomaterials in the field of tissue engineering applications has been intensively growing over the past decades. Multiple cross-linking methods were investigated and different combinations with other biopolymers were explored in order to improve tissue function. Collagen possesses a major advantage in being biodegradable, biocompatible, easily available and highly versatile. However, since collagen is a protein, it remains difficult to sterilize without alterations to its structure. This review presents a comprehensive overview of the various applications of collagen-based biomaterials developed for tissue engineering, aimed at providing a functional material for use in regenerative medicine from the laboratory bench to the patient bedside.

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      Most cited references 217

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      Perfusion-decellularized matrix: using nature's platform to engineer a bioartificial heart.

      About 3,000 individuals in the United States are awaiting a donor heart; worldwide, 22 million individuals are living with heart failure. A bioartificial heart is a theoretical alternative to transplantation or mechanical left ventricular support. Generating a bioartificial heart requires engineering of cardiac architecture, appropriate cellular constituents and pump function. We decellularized hearts by coronary perfusion with detergents, preserved the underlying extracellular matrix, and produced an acellular, perfusable vascular architecture, competent acellular valves and intact chamber geometry. To mimic cardiac cell composition, we reseeded these constructs with cardiac or endothelial cells. To establish function, we maintained eight constructs for up to 28 d by coronary perfusion in a bioreactor that simulated cardiac physiology. By day 4, we observed macroscopic contractions. By day 8, under physiological load and electrical stimulation, constructs could generate pump function (equivalent to about 2% of adult or 25% of 16-week fetal heart function) in a modified working heart preparation.
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        Tissue-engineered autologous bladders for patients needing cystoplasty.

        Patients with end-stage bladder disease can be treated with cystoplasty using gastrointestinal segments. The presence of such segments in the urinary tract has been associated with many complications. We explored an alternative approach using autologous engineered bladder tissues for reconstruction. Seven patients with myelomeningocele, aged 4-19 years, with high-pressure or poorly compliant bladders, were identified as candidates for cystoplasty. A bladder biopsy was obtained from each patient. Urothelial and muscle cells were grown in culture, and seeded on a biodegradable bladder-shaped scaffold made of collagen, or a composite of collagen and polyglycolic acid. About 7 weeks after the biopsy, the autologous engineered bladder constructs were used for reconstruction and implanted either with or without an omental wrap. Serial urodynamics, cystograms, ultrasounds, bladder biopsies, and serum analyses were done. Follow-up range was 22-61 months (mean 46 months). Post-operatively, the mean bladder leak point pressure decrease at capacity, and the volume and compliance increase was greatest in the composite engineered bladders with an omental wrap (56%, 1.58-fold, and 2.79-fold, respectively). Bowel function returned promptly after surgery. No metabolic consequences were noted, urinary calculi did not form, mucus production was normal, and renal function was preserved. The engineered bladder biopsies showed an adequate structural architecture and phenotype. Engineered bladder tissues, created with autologous cells seeded on collagen-polyglycolic acid scaffolds, and wrapped in omentum after implantation, can be used in patients who need cystoplasty.
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          Decellularization of tissues and organs.

          Decellularized tissues and organs have been successfully used in a variety of tissue engineering/regenerative medicine applications, and the decellularization methods used vary as widely as the tissues and organs of interest. The efficiency of cell removal from a tissue is dependent on the origin of the tissue and the specific physical, chemical, and enzymatic methods that are used. Each of these treatments affect the biochemical composition, tissue ultrastructure, and mechanical behavior of the remaining extracellular matrix (ECM) scaffold, which in turn, affect the host response to the material. Herein, the most commonly used decellularization methods are described, and consideration give to the effects of these methods upon the biologic scaffold material.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            [1 ]Laboratoire d’Organogénèse Expérimentale (LOEX), Centre de recherche FRSQ du CHA universitaire de Québec, Hôpital du Saint-Sacrement, Québec, QC, G1S 4L8 Canada; E-Mails: remi.parenteau.1@ 123456ulaval.ca (R.P.B.); robert.gauvin.1@ 123456ulaval.ca (R.G.)
            [2 ]Département de chirurgie, Faculté de médecine, Université Laval, Québec, QC, G1V 0A6 Canada
            Author notes
            [* ]Author to whom correspondence should be addressed; E-Mail: francois.berthod@ 123456chg.ulaval.ca ; Tel.: +1-418-682-7565; Fax: +1-418-682-8000.
            Journal
            Materials (Basel)
            Materials (Basel)
            materials
            Materials
            Molecular Diversity Preservation International
            1996-1944
            16 March 2010
            March 2010
            : 3
            : 3
            : 1863-1887
            5445871 10.3390/ma3031863 materials-03-01863
            © 2010 by the authors;

            licensee Molecular Diversity Preservation International, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open-access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/).

            Categories
            Review

            soft tissue, biomaterial, collagen

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