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      Atrial natriuretic peptide modified oleate adenosine prodrug lipid nanocarriers for the treatment of myocardial infarction: in vitro and in vivo evaluation

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          Abstract

          Purpose

          Myocardial infarction is a major cause of mortality and heart failure worldwide. One of the most effective methods of this injury is direct delivery of cardioprotective drugs to ischemia–reperfusion (IR) myocardium. The aim of the present study was to fabricate an adenosine (Ade) prodrug-based, atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP)-modified nanosystem for the treatment of myocardial infarction.

          Materials and methods

          Oleate adenosine prodrug (Ade-OA) and ANP-distearoylphosphatidylethanolamine-polyethylene glycol were synthesized. ANP-modified Ade-loaded lipid nanocarriers (ANP Ade/LNCs) were then self-assembled by using solvent evaporation method. In vitro drug release in the presence of plasma was evaluated. In vivo inhibition effect on infarct size, tissue distribution, and pharmacokinetics were investigated in rats with ischemic myocardium after intravenous injection.

          Results

          In vivo inhibition effect on infarct size, tissue distribution, and pharmacokinetics studies in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) rats showed that ANP Ade/LNCs exhibited better efficiency than non-modified Ade/LNCs and free Ade in all respects.

          Conclusion

          These results indicated that the ANP Ade/LNCs can be used as a promising system for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases.

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          Most cited references 41

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          PKSolver: An add-in program for pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic data analysis in Microsoft Excel.

          This study presents PKSolver, a freely available menu-driven add-in program for Microsoft Excel written in Visual Basic for Applications (VBA), for solving basic problems in pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) data analysis. The program provides a range of modules for PK and PD analysis including noncompartmental analysis (NCA), compartmental analysis (CA), and pharmacodynamic modeling. Two special built-in modules, multiple absorption sites (MAS) and enterohepatic circulation (EHC), were developed for fitting the double-peak concentration-time profile based on the classical one-compartment model. In addition, twenty frequently used pharmacokinetic functions were encoded as a macro and can be directly accessed in an Excel spreadsheet. To evaluate the program, a detailed comparison of modeling PK data using PKSolver and professional PK/PD software package WinNonlin and Scientist was performed. The results showed that the parameters estimated with PKSolver were satisfactory. In conclusion, the PKSolver simplified the PK and PD data analysis process and its output could be generated in Microsoft Word in the form of an integrated report. The program provides pharmacokinetic researchers with a fast and easy-to-use tool for routine and basic PK and PD data analysis with a more user-friendly interface. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
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            Prodrugs: design and clinical applications.

            Prodrugs are bioreversible derivatives of drug molecules that undergo an enzymatic and/or chemical transformation in vivo to release the active parent drug, which can then exert the desired pharmacological effect. In both drug discovery and development, prodrugs have become an established tool for improving physicochemical, biopharmaceutical or pharmacokinetic properties of pharmacologically active agents. About 5-7% of drugs approved worldwide can be classified as prodrugs, and the implementation of a prodrug approach in the early stages of drug discovery is a growing trend. To illustrate the applicability of the prodrug strategy, this article describes the most common functional groups that are amenable to prodrug design, and highlights examples of prodrugs that are either launched or are undergoing human trials.
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              Adenosine receptors as drug targets--what are the challenges?

              Adenosine signalling has long been a target for drug development, with adenosine itself or its derivatives being used clinically since the 1940s. In addition, methylxanthines such as caffeine have profound biological effects as antagonists at adenosine receptors. Moreover, drugs such as dipyridamole and methotrexate act by enhancing the activation of adenosine receptors. There is strong evidence that adenosine has a functional role in many diseases, and several pharmacological compounds specifically targeting individual adenosine receptors--either directly or indirectly--have now entered the clinic. However, only one adenosine receptor-specific agent--the adenosine A2A receptor agonist regadenoson (Lexiscan; Astellas Pharma)--has so far gained approval from the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Here, we focus on the biology of adenosine signalling to identify hurdles in the development of additional pharmacological compounds targeting adenosine receptors and discuss strategies to overcome these challenges.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                1177-8881
                2018
                11 June 2018
                : 12
                : 1697-1706
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Emergency, Shandong Jining No 1 People’s Hospital, Jining 272011, Shandong, People’s Republic of China
                [2 ]Department of Outpatient, Shandong Jining No 1 People’s Hospital, Jining 272011, Shandong, People’s Republic of China
                [3 ]Department of Public Health, Shandong Jining No 1 People’s Hospital, Jining 272011, Shandong, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Dongmei Yu, Department of Public Health, Shandong Jining No 1 People’s Hospital, No 6 Health Road, Jining City 272011, Shandong Province, People’s Republic of China, Tel +86 159 9695 6290, Email yudjnph@ 123456163.com
                [*]

                These authors contributed equally to this work

                Article
                dddt-12-1697
                10.2147/DDDT.S166749
                6001834
                © 2018 Yu et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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                Original Research

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