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      Prostaglandin D2 Selectively Induces Chemotaxis in T Helper Type 2 Cells, Eosinophils, and Basophils via Seven-Transmembrane Receptor Crth2

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          Prostaglandin (PG)D 2, which has long been implicated in allergic diseases, is currently considered to elicit its biological actions through the DP receptor (DP). Involvement of DP in the formation of allergic asthma was recently demonstrated with DP-deficient mice. However, proinflammatory functions of PGD 2 cannot be explained by DP alone. We show here that a seven-transmembrane receptor, CRTH2, which is preferentially expressed in T helper type 2 (Th2) cells, eosinophils, and basophils in humans, serves as the novel receptor for PGD 2. In response to PGD 2, CRTH2 induces intracellular Ca 2+ mobilization and chemotaxis in Th2 cells in a Gαi-dependent manner. In addition, CRTH2, but not DP, mediates PGD 2-dependent cell migration of blood eosinophils and basophils. Thus, PGD 2 is likely involved in multiple aspects of allergic inflammation through its dual receptor systems, DP and CRTH2.

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          Most cited references 24

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          Predominant TH2-like bronchoalveolar T-lymphocyte population in atopic asthma.

          In atopic asthma, activated T helper lymphocytes are present in bronchial-biopsy specimens and bronchoalveolar-lavage (BAL) fluid, and their production of cytokines may be important in the pathogenesis of this disorder. Different patterns of cytokine release are characteristic of certain subgroups of T helper cells, termed TH1 and TH2, the former mediating delayed-type hypersensitivity and the latter mediating IgE synthesis and eosinophilia. The pattern of cytokine production in atopic asthma is unknown. We assessed cells obtained by BAL in subjects with mild atopic asthma and in normal control subjects for the expression of messenger RNA (mRNA) for interleukin-2, 3, 4, and 5, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and interferon gamma by in situ hybridization with 32P-labeled complementary RNA. Localization of mRNA to BAL T cells was assessed by simultaneous in situ hybridization and immunofluorescence and by in situ hybridization after immunomagnetic enrichment or depletion of T cells. As compared with the control subjects, the subjects with asthma had more BAL cells per 1000 cell that were positive for mRNA for interleukin-2 (P less than 0.05), 3 (P less than 0.01), 4 (P less than 0.001), and 5 (P less than 0.001) and GM-CSF (P less than 0.001). There was no significant difference between the two groups in the number of cells expressing mRNA for interferon gamma. In the subjects with asthma, mRNA for interleukin-4 and 5 was expressed predominantly by T lymphocytes. Atopic asthma is associated with activation in the bronchi of the interleukin-3, 4, and 5 and GM-CSF gene cluster, a pattern compatible with predominant activation of the TH2-like T-cell population.
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            Prostanoid receptors: structures, properties, and functions.

            Prostanoids are the cyclooxygenase metabolites of arachidonic acid and include prostaglandin (PG) D(2), PGE(2), PGF(2alpha), PGI(2), and thromboxne A(2). They are synthesized and released upon cell stimulation and act on cells in the vicinity of their synthesis to exert their actions. Receptors mediating the actions of prostanoids were recently identified and cloned. They are G protein-coupled receptors with seven transmembrane domains. There are eight types and subtypes of prostanoid receptors that are encoded by different genes but as a whole constitute a subfamily in the superfamily of the rhodopsin-type receptors. Each of the receptors was expressed in cultured cells, and its ligand-binding properties and signal transduction pathways were characterized. Moreover, domains and amino acid residues conferring the specificities of ligand binding and signal transduction are being clarified. Information also is accumulating as to the distribution of these receptors in the body. It is also becoming clear for some types of receptors how expression of their genes is regulated. Furthermore, the gene for each of the eight types of prostanoid receptor has been disrupted, and mice deficient in each type of receptor are being examined to identify and assess the roles played by each receptor under various physiological and pathophysiological conditions. In this article, we summarize these findings and attempt to give an overview of the current status of research on the prostanoid receptors.
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              The molecular biology of leukocyte chemoattractant receptors.

              Leukocytes migrate from the blood to sites of inflammation in response to locally produced chemoattractants that activate specific cell surface receptors. The primary structures of leukocyte receptors for N-formyl peptides, C5a, platelet-activating factor, and 8 of the 18 known human chemokines (interleukin-8 and related molecules) have been deduced from cloned cDNAs. All of these are seven-transmembrane-domain rhodopsin-like G protein-coupled receptors. Biochemical and molecular genetic analysis of the chemoattractant receptors indicates that the chemoattractants may have both broadly overlapping as well as specialized roles in the regulation of acute and chronic inflammation. Interestingly, the chemokine receptors have functional homologues in human cytomegalovirus and Herpesvirus saimiri. Moreover, the Duffy antigen, which mediates invasion of erythrocytes by Plasmodium vivax, a major cause of malaria, is also a chemokine binding protein. These surprising developments suggest that in addition to leukocyte-mediated inflammation, the chemokines may also be involved in erythrocyte function and, through molecular mimicry, in microbial pathogenesis.

                Author and article information

                J Exp Med
                The Journal of Experimental Medicine
                The Rockefeller University Press
                15 January 2001
                : 193
                : 2
                : 255-262
                [a ]R&D Center, BML, Saitama 350-1101, Japan
                [b ]Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Faculty of Science, Ibaraki University, Ibaraki 310-8512, Japan
                [c ]Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Science, Ibaraki University, Ibaraki 310-8512, Japan
                [d ]Department of Bacteriology, Kinki University School of Medicine, Osaka 589-8511, Japan
                [e ]Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Tohoku University School of Medicine, Miyagi 980-8575, Japan
                [f ]Human Gene Sciences Center, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo 113-8510, Japan
                © 2001 The Rockefeller University Press
                Brief Definitive Report


                t cells, cell migration, gαi-type g protein, allergic inflammation, prostanoid receptor


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