8
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
1 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      Pesticide toxicity: a mechanistic approach

      review-article

      Read this article at

      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          Pesticides are known for their high persistence and pervasiveness in the environment, and along with products of their biotransformation, they may remain in and interact with the environment and living organisms in multiple ways, according to their nature and chemical structure, dose and targets. In this review, the classifications of pesticides based on their nature, use, physical state, pathophysiological effects, and sources are discussed. The effects of these xenobiotics on the environment, their biotransformation in terms of bioaccumulation are highlighted with special focus on the molecular mechanisms deciphered to date. Basing on targeted organisms, most pesticides are classified as herbicides, fungicides, and insecticides. Herbicides are known as growth regulators, seedling growth inhibitors, photosynthesis inhibitors, inhibitors of amino acid and lipid biosynthesis, cell membrane disrupters, and pigment biosynthesis inhibitors, whereas fungicides include inhibitors of ergosterol biosynthesis, protein biosynthesis, and mitochondrial respiration. Insecticides mainly affect nerves and muscle, growth and development, and energy production. Studying the impact of pesticides and other related chemicals is of great interest to animal and human health risk assessment processes since potentially everyone can be exposed to these compounds which may cause many diseases, including metabolic syndrome, malnutrition, atherosclerosis, inflammation, pathogen invasion, nerve injury, and susceptibility to infectious diseases. Future studies should be directed to investigate influence of long term effects of low pesticide doses and to minimize or eliminate influence of pesticides on non-target living organisms, produce more specific pesticides and using modern technologies to decrease contamination of food and other goods by pesticides.

          Related collections

          Most cited references175

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Environmentally induced oxidative stress in aquatic animals.

          Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are an unenviable part of aerobic life. Their steady-state concentration is a balance between production and elimination providing certain steady-state ROS level. The dynamic equilibrium can be disturbed leading to enhanced ROS level and damage to cellular constituents which is called "oxidative stress". This review describes the general processes responsible for ROS generation in aquatic animals and critically analyses used markers for identification of oxidative stress. Changes in temperature, oxygen levels and salinity can cause the stress in natural and artificial conditions via induction of disbalance between ROS production and elimination. Human borne pollutants can also enhance ROS level in hydrobionts. The role of transition metal ions, such as copper, chromium, mercury and arsenic, and pesticides, namely insecticides, herbicides, and fungicides along with oil products in induction of oxidative stress is highlighted. Last years the research in biology of free radicals was refocused from only descriptive works to molecular mechanisms with particular interest to ones enhancing tolerance. The function of some transcription regulators (Keap1-Nrf2 and HIF-1α) in coordination of organisms' response to oxidative stress is discussed. The future directions in the field are related with more accurate description of oxidative stress, the identification of its general characteristics and mechanisms responsible for adaptation to the stress have been also discussed. The last part marks some perspectives in the study of oxidative stress in hydrobionts, which, in addition to classic use, became more and more popular to address general biological questions such as development, aging and pathologies. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: found
            Is Open Access

            Glutathione Homeostasis and Functions: Potential Targets for Medical Interventions

            Glutathione (GSH) is a tripeptide, which has many biological roles including protection against reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. The primary goal of this paper is to characterize the principal mechanisms of the protective role of GSH against reactive species and electrophiles. The ancillary goals are to provide up-to-date knowledge of GSH biosynthesis, hydrolysis, and utilization; intracellular compartmentalization and interorgan transfer; elimination of endogenously produced toxicants; involvement in metal homeostasis; glutathione-related enzymes and their regulation; glutathionylation of sulfhydryls. Individual sections are devoted to the relationships between GSH homeostasis and pathologies as well as to developed research tools and pharmacological approaches to manipulating GSH levels. Special attention is paid to compounds mainly of a natural origin (phytochemicals) which affect GSH-related processes. The paper provides starting points for development of novel tools and provides a hypothesis for investigation of the physiology and biochemistry of glutathione with a focus on human and animal health.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Paraquat poisonings: mechanisms of lung toxicity, clinical features, and treatment.

              Paraquat dichloride (methyl viologen; PQ) is an effective and widely used herbicide that has a proven safety record when appropriately applied to eliminate weeds. However, over the last decades, there have been numerous fatalities, mainly caused by accidental or voluntary ingestion. PQ poisoning is an extremely frustrating condition to manage clinically, due to the elevated morbidity and mortality observed so far and due to the lack of effective treatments to be used in humans. PQ mainly accumulates in the lung (pulmonary concentrations can be 6 to 10 times higher than those in the plasma), where it is retained even when blood levels start to decrease. The pulmonary effects can be explained by the participation of the polyamine transport system abundantly expressed in the membrane of alveolar cells type I, II, and Clara cells. Further downstream at the toxicodynamic level, the main molecular mechanism of PQ toxicity is based on redox cycling and intracellular oxidative stress generation. With this review we aimed to collect and describe the most pertinent and significant findings published in established scientific publications since the discovery of PQ, focusing on the most recent developments related to PQ lung toxicity and their relevance to the treatment of human poisonings. Considerable space is also dedicated to techniques for prognosis prediction, since these could allow development of rigorous clinical protocols that may produce comparable data for the evaluation of proposed therapies.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Journal
                EXCLI J
                EXCLI J
                EXCLI J
                EXCLI Journal
                Leibniz Research Centre for Working Environment and Human Factors
                1611-2156
                08 November 2018
                2018
                : 17
                : 1101-1136
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Vasyl Stefanyk Precarpathian National University, 57 Shevchenko Str., Ivano-Frankivsk, 76018, Ukraine
                [2 ]Institute of Biochemistry, Carleton University, 1125 Colonel By Drive, Ottawa, Ontario K1S 5B6, Canada
                Author notes
                *To whom correspondence should be addressed: Volodymyr I. Lushchak, Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Vasyl Stefanyk Precarpathian National University, 57 Shevchenko Str., Ivano-Frankivsk 76018, Ukraine; Tel/Fax.: +38 0342 714683, E-mail: lushchak@ 123456pu.if.ua
                Article
                2018-1710 Doc1101
                10.17179/excli2018-1710
                6295629
                938b8f7a-eb13-433f-ba42-df4af83fcd25
                Copyright © 2018 Lushchak et al.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Licence ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) You are free to copy, distribute and transmit the work, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Categories
                Review Article

                bioaccumulation,biotransformation,pollutants,mechanisms,oxidative stress,xenobiotics

                Comments

                Comment on this article