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      A new species of Psammonitocrella Huys, 2009 (Copepoda, Harpacticoida, Ameiridae) from California (USA), with a discussion of the relationship between Psammonitocrella and Parastenocarididae

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          Abstract

          The freshwater harpacticoid Psammonitocrella kumeyaayi sp. nov. from the Nearctic Region (California; USA) is proposed. The position of the genus within Harpacticoida and its relationship with the Parastenocarididae is discussed. The new species can be included within Psammonitocrella on account of a) the cylindrical furca, longer than the telson, b) the unmodified inner spine on the basis of the male first leg, c) loss of the outer spine on the second exopodal segment of the first leg, d) loss of the outer spine of the third exopodal segment of the second, third, and fourth legs, e) loss of the inner apical seta on the third exopodal segment of the second and third legs, f) transformation of the inner apical seta of the third exopodal segment of the fourth leg into a spine, and g) loss of the endopodite of the fourth leg. The new species differs remarkably from P. boultoni , and P. longifurcata in the loss of the outer spine of the second exopodal segment of the fourth leg, in the presence of a one-segmented fifth leg exopodite, and in the presence of an outer seta on the basis of the first and second legs. Both Psammonitocrella and the known species of Parastenocarididae have a one-segmented endopod on the fourth leg, and the endopods of the second and third legs are reduced to one or two segments. Psammonitocrella is currently allocated into the Ameiridae , and evidence suggesting a sister-group relationship with Parastenocarididae —both share the loss of the inner seta on the first endopodal segment of the first leg—indicates that the Parastenocarididae should be included into the Ameiridae . In an evolutionary context, Parastenocarididae could have evolved from a lineage of freshwater ameirids that became interstitial in continental waters and colonized aquifers and groundwaters.

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          Most cited references 21

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          Global diversity of copepods (Crustacea: Copepoda) in freshwater

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            Diversity, ecology and evolution of groundwater copepods

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              The Ubiquitous Telson and the Deceptive Furca

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Zookeys
                Zookeys
                2
                urn:lsid:arphahub.com:pub:45048D35-BB1D-5CE8-9668-537E44BD4C7E
                urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:91BD42D4-90F1-4B45-9350-EEF175B1727A
                ZooKeys
                Pensoft Publishers
                1313-2989
                1313-2970
                2020
                24 November 2020
                : 996
                : 19-35
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Department of General Biology, Universidade Estadual de Montes Claros, 39401-089, Montes Claros, Brazil Universidade Estadual de Montes Claros Montes Claros Brazil
                [2 ] Senckenberg am Meer Wilhelmshaven, Abt. Deutsches Zentrum für Marine Biodiversität, DZMB, German Centre for Marine Biodiversity Research, Südstrand 44, 26382, Wilhelmshaven, Germany Senckenberg am Meer Wilhelmshaven Wilhelmshaven Germany
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Paulo Henrique Costa Corgosinho ( pcorgo@ 123456gmail.com )

                Academic editor: Kai Horst George

                Article
                55034
                10.3897/zookeys.996.55034
                7710687
                Paulo Henrique Costa Corgosinho, Terue Cristina Kihara, Pedro Martínez Arbizu

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Categories
                Research Article
                Ameiridae
                Harpacticoida
                Parastenocarididae
                Systematics
                North America
                USA and Canada

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