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      Is There an Association Between Alcohol Consumption and Sexually Transmitted Diseases? A Systematic Review :

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          Abstract

          The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic review of published literature on the association between problematic alcohol consumption and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Using a MEDLINE search (1995-2003) and article references, we identified articles that described measures of alcohol consumption and STDs and presented data on their association. For each eligible study, we classified the alcohol consumption measure as specific (problem drinking) or general, and examined study designs, study populations, STD measures, and results. Of 42 eligible studies, 11 included specific measures of problem drinking, of which 8 found a significant association between alcohol consumption and at least 1 STD. The relationship did not appear to vary according to gender or pattern of alcohol consumption assessed. The literature supports an overall association between problematic alcohol consumption and STDs, although their causal relationship cannot be determined with certainty from these observational studies. The findings have implications for prevention planners, clinicians, and individual patients at risk of STDs.

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          Most cited references 46

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          A gender-specific measure of binge drinking among college students.

          This study examined the relationship of volume of alcohol consumed to the occurrence of alcohol-related problems among male and female college students to develop a gender-specific measure of heavy episodic or binge drinking by college students for public health research. A self-administered survey was mailed to a national representative sample of students at 140 4-year colleges in 40 states and the District of Columbia. A total of 17,592 college students completed the survey. Women who typically drink four drinks in a row were found to have roughly the same likelihood of experiencing drinking-related problems as men who typically drink five drinks in a row. Use of the same standard for both sexes underestimates binge drinking and the negative health risks for women.
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            "Broken windows" and the risk of gonorrhea.

            We examined the relationships between neighborhood conditions and gonorrhea. We assessed 55 block groups by rating housing and street conditions. We mapped all cases of gonorrhea between 1994 and 1996 and calculated aggregated case rates by block group. We obtained public school inspection reports and assigned findings to the block groups served by the neighborhood schools. A "broken windows" index measured housing quality, abandoned cars, graffiti, trash, and public school deterioration. Using data from the 1990 census and 1995 updates, we determined the association between "broken windows," demographic characteristics, and gonorrhea rates. The broken windows index explained more of the variance in gonorrhea rates than did a poverty index measuring income, unemployment, and low education. In high-poverty neighborhoods, block groups with high broken windows scores had significantly higher gonorrhea rates than block groups with low broken windows scores (46.6 per 1000 vs 25.8 per 1000; P < .001). The robust association of deteriorated physical conditions of local neighborhoods with gonorrhea rates, independent of poverty, merits an intervention trial to test whether the environment has a causal role in influencing high-risk sexual behaviors.
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              The development and use of the concept of a sexually transmitted disease core.

              A small proportion of people experiencing a sexually transmitted disease (STD), who are frequently infected or often transmit the infection, has been referred to as the "core." Though a prominent paradigm in the epidemiology of STDs, there is confusion about the meaning of the core. The term has been used to refer variously to people who are infected a large proportion of the time, infect more than one other person, are repeatedly infected, or are prostitutes or their clients and to geographic areas with large numbers of cases. Three perspectives that have contributed to the development of the concept of an STD core were identified: mathematical, clinical-epidemiologic, and sociocultural. These different perspectives share the common aim of identifying strategic points of intervention to reduce STDs. The value of the concept of an STD core will ultimately derive from its utility in lowering STD rates.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Sexually Transmitted Diseases
                Sexually Transmitted Diseases
                Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health)
                0148-5717
                2005
                March 2005
                : 32
                : 3
                : 156-164
                Article
                10.1097/01.olq.0000151418.03899.97
                15729152
                © 2005
                Product

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