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      Soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor is a novel biomarker predicting acute exacerbation in COPD

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          Abstract

          Background

          Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a chronic inflammatory condition, and progresses with acute exacerbations. (AE). During AE, levels of acute phase reactants such as C-reactive protein (CRP) and inflammatory cells in the circulation increase. Soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) levels increase in acute viral and bacterial infections and in diseases involving chronic inflammation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of suPAR in predicting diagnosis of AE of COPD (AE-COPD) and response to treatment.

          Methods

          The study population consisted of 43 patients diagnosed with AE-COPD and 30 healthy controls. suPAR, CRP, and fibrinogen levels were measured on the first day of hospitalization and on the seventh day of treatment.

          Results

          We found that fibrinogen ( P<0.001), CRP ( P<0.001), and suPAR ( P<0.001) were significantly higher in patients with AE-COPD than in healthy controls. Fibrinogen ( P<0.001), CRP ( P=0.001), and suPAR ( P<0.001) were significantly decreased by the seventh day of treatment. However, the area under receiver operator characteristic curve showed that suPAR is superior to CRP and fibrinogen in distinguishing AE-COPD. There was a correlation between fibrinogen, CRP, and suPAR. However, only fibrinogen was a powerful predictor of suPAR in multiple linear regression. In multiple logistic regression, only suPAR and fibrinogen were strong predictors of AE-COPD ( P=0.002 and P=0.014, respectively). Serum suPAR was negatively correlated with forced expiratory volume in 1 second ( r=−478, P=0.001).

          Conclusion

          suPAR is a marker of acute inflammation. It is well correlated with such inflammation markers as CRP and fibrinogen. suPAR can be used as a predictor of AE-COPD and in monitoring response to treatment.

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          Most cited references 22

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          Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

          Summary Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterised by progressive airflow obstruction that is only partly reversible, inflammation in the airways, and systemic effects or comorbities. The main cause is smoking tobacco, but other factors have been identified. Several pathobiological processes interact on a complex background of genetic determinants, lung growth, and environmental stimuli. The disease is further aggravated by exacerbations, particularly in patients with severe disease, up to 78% of which are due to bacterial infections, viral infections, or both. Comorbidities include ischaemic heart disease, diabetes, and lung cancer. Bronchodilators constitute the mainstay of treatment: β2 agonists and long-acting anticholinergic agents are frequently used (the former often with inhaled corticosteroids). Besides improving symptoms, these treatments are also thought to lead to some degree of disease modification. Future research should be directed towards the development of agents that notably affect the course of disease.
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            C-reactive protein in patients with COPD, control smokers and non-smokers.

            Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have raised serum levels of C reactive protein (CRP). This may be related directly to COPD and its associated systemic inflammation or secondary to other factors such as concomitant ischaemic heart disease (IHD) or smoking status. The aim of this study was to evaluate IHD and smoking as potential causes of raised CRP levels in COPD and to test the association between inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) use and serum CRP levels. Cross sectional analyses comparing cohorts of 88 patients with COPD, 33 smokers (S), and 38 non-smoker (NS) controls were performed. Clinical assessments included a complete medical history, pulmonary function, 6 minute walk test (6MWT), cardiopulmonary exercise test, and high sensitivity serum CRP measurements. Serum CRP levels were significantly higher in patients with COPD (5.03 (1.51) mg/l) than in controls (adjusted odds ratio 9.51; 95% confidence interval 2.97 to 30.45) but were similar in the two control groups (S: 2.02 (1.04) mg/l; NS: 2.24 (1.04) mg/l). There was no clinical or exercise evidence of unstable IHD in any of the subjects. CRP levels were lower in COPD patients treated with ICS than in those not treated (3.7 (3.0) mg/l v 6.3 (3.6) mg/l); this association was confirmed in an adjusted regression model (p<0.05). CRP levels are raised in COPD patients without clinically relevant IHD and independent of cigarette smoking, and reduced in patients with COPD using ICS. CRP may be a systemic marker of the inflammatory process that occurs in patients with COPD.
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              C-reactive protein as a predictor of prognosis in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

              Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have an ongoing systemic inflammation, which can be assessed by measuring serum C-reactive protein (CRP). To determine whether increased serum CRP in individuals with airway obstruction predicts future hospitalization and death from COPD. We performed a cohort study with a median of 8-yr follow-up of 1,302 individuals with airway obstruction selected from the ongoing Copenhagen City Heart Study. We measured serum CRP at baseline, and recorded COPD admissions and deaths as outcomes. During follow-up, 185 (14%) individuals were hospitalized due to COPD and 83 (6%) died of COPD. Incidences of COPD hospitalization and COPD death were increased in individuals with baseline CRP > 3 mg/L versus 3 mg/L versus < or = 3 mg/L. After close matching for FEV(1)% predicted and adjusting for potential confounders, baseline CRP was, on average, increased by 1.2 mg/L (analysis of variance: p = 0.002) and 4.1 mg/L (p = 0.001) in those who were subsequently hospitalized or died of COPD, respectively. The absolute 10-yr risks for COPD hospitalization and death in individuals with CRP above 3 mg/L were 54 and 57%, respectively, among those older than 70 yr with a tobacco consumption above 15 g/d and an FEV(1)% predicted of less than 50. CRP is a strong and independent predictor of future COPD outcomes in individuals with airway obstruction.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                International Journal of COPD
                International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
                Dove Medical Press
                1176-9106
                1178-2005
                2015
                13 February 2015
                : 10
                : 357-365
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Pulmonary Medicine, School of Medicine, Recep Tayyip Erdogan University, Rize, Turkey
                [2 ]Department of Pulmonary Medicine, School of Medicine, Namik Kemal University, Tekirdag, Turkey
                [3 ]Department of Clinical Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Recep Tayyip Erdogan University, Rize, Turkey
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Nejat Altintas, Department of Pulmonary Medicine, School of Medicine, Namik Kemal University, 100 Yil Mah, Tunca Caddesi, Tekirdag, Turkey, Tel +90 282 250 0000, Email nejataltintas@ 123456gmail.com
                Article
                copd-10-357
                10.2147/COPD.S77654
                4334296
                © 2015 Gumus et al. This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License

                The full terms of the License are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Categories
                Original Research

                Respiratory medicine

                supar, biomarker, inflammation, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

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