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      Taxonomic assessment of genetically-delineated species of radicine snails (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Lymnaeidae)

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      Zoosystematics and Evolution

      Pensoft Publishers

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          Abstract

          The article represents an overview of 29 biological species of the radicine snails (genera Ampullaceana Servain, 1882, Bullastra Bergh, 1901, Racesina Vinarski & Bolotov, 2018, Kamtschaticana Kruglov & Starobogatov, 1984, Myxas G.B. Sowerby I, 1822, Orientogalba Kruglov & Starobogatov, 1985; Peregriana Servain, 1882, Radix Montfort, 1810, and Tibetoradix Bolotov, Vinarski & Aksenova, 2018) recovered during our previous molecular taxonomic study (Aksenova et al. 2018a; Scientific Reports, 8: 11199). For each species, the following information is provided: scientific name, a (non-exhaustive) list of synonyms, type locality, type materials, shell and copulative apparatus morphology, distribution, and nomenclatural and taxonomic remarks. The colour images of shell(s) of each species are also given as well as illustrations of the copulatory apparatuses. We revealed a great conchological variation in the radicines, both intra- and interspecific, alongside with striking uniformity in the structure of their copulatory apparatuses. The latter was once thought to be a reliable tool for species delineation and identification in this snail group. The total of 29 species characterised here represents, probably, only a subset of the global taxonomic richness of the radicine snails, which approaches 50 species.

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          Most cited references 61

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          Freshwater Snails Of Africa And Their Medical Importance

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            Concurrent evolution of ancient sister lakes and sister species: the freshwater gastropod genus Radix in lakes Ohrid and Prespa

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              Lymnaea schirazensis, an Overlooked Snail Distorting Fascioliasis Data: Genotype, Phenotype, Ecology, Worldwide Spread, Susceptibility, Applicability

              Background Lymnaeid snails transmit medical and veterinary important trematodiases, mainly fascioliasis. Vector specificity of fasciolid parasites defines disease distribution and characteristics. Different lymnaeid species appear linked to different transmission and epidemiological patterns. Pronounced susceptibility differences to absolute resistance have been described among lymnaeid populations. When assessing disease characteristics in different endemic areas, unexpected results were obtained in studies on lymnaeid susceptibility to Fasciola. We undertook studies to understand this disease transmission heterogeneity. Methodology/Principal Findings A ten-year study in Iran, Egypt, Spain, the Dominican Republic, Mexico, Venezuela, Ecuador and Peru, demonstrated that such heterogeneity is not due to susceptibility differences, but to a hitherto overlooked cryptic species, Lymnaea schirazensis, confused with the main vector Galba truncatula and/or other Galba/Fossaria vectors. Nuclear rDNA and mtDNA sequences and phylogenetic reconstruction highlighted an old evolutionary divergence from other Galba/Fossaria species, and a low intraspecific variability suggesting a recent spread from one geographical source. Morphometry, anatomy and egg cluster analyses allowed for phenotypic differentiation. Selfing, egg laying, and habitat characteristics indicated a migration capacity by passive transport. Studies showed that it is not a vector species (n = 8572 field collected, 20 populations): snail finding and penetration by F. hepatica miracidium occur but never lead to cercarial production (n = 338 experimentally infected). Conclusions/Significance This species has been distorting fasciolid specificity/susceptibility and fascioliasis geographical distribution data. Hence, a large body of literature on G. truncatula should be revised. Its existence has henceforth to be considered in research. Genetic data on livestock, archeology and history along the 10,000-year post-domestication period explain its wide spread from the Neolithic Fertile Crescent. It is an efficient biomarker for the follow-up of livestock movements, a crucial aspect in fascioliasis emergence. It offers an outstanding laboratory model for genetic studies on susceptibility/resistance in F. hepatica/lymnaeid interaction, a field of applied research with disease control perspectives.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
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                Journal
                Zoosystematics and Evolution
                ZSE
                Pensoft Publishers
                1860-0743
                1435-1935
                September 01 2020
                September 01 2020
                : 96
                : 2
                : 577-608
                Article
                10.3897/zse.96.52860
                © 2020

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