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      The application of click chemistry in the synthesis of agents with anticancer activity

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          Abstract

          The copper(I)-catalyzed 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition between alkynes and azides (click chemistry) to form 1,2,3-triazoles is the most popular reaction due to its reliability, specificity, and biocompatibility. This reaction has the potential to shorten procedures, and render more efficient lead identification and optimization procedures in medicinal chemistry, which is a powerful modular synthetic approach toward the assembly of new molecular entities and has been applied in anticancer drugs discovery increasingly. The present review focuses mainly on the applications of this reaction in the field of synthesis of agents with anticancer activity, which are divided into four groups: topoisomerase II inhibitors, histone deacetylase inhibitors, protein tyrosine kinase inhibitors, and antimicrotubule agents.

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          Most cited references 56

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          Oncogenic kinase signalling.

           Jon Hunter,  P Blume (2001)
          Protein-tyrosine kinases (PTKs) are important regulators of intracellular signal-transduction pathways mediating development and multicellular communication in metazoans. Their activity is normally tightly controlled and regulated. Perturbation of PTK signalling by mutations and other genetic alterations results in deregulated kinase activity and malignant transformation. The lipid kinase phosphoinositide 3-OH kinase (PI(3)K) and some of its downstream targets, such as the protein-serine/threonine kinases Akt and p70 S6 kinase (p70S6K), are crucial effectors in oncogenic PTK signalling. This review emphasizes how oncogenic conversion of protein kinases results from perturbation of the normal autoinhibitory constraints on kinase activity and provides an update on our knowledge about the role of deregulated PI(3)K/Akt and mammalian target of rapamycin/p70S6K signalling in human malignancies.
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            Click chemistry for drug development and diverse chemical-biology applications.

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              Src family kinases in tumor progression and metastasis.

               Gary Gallick,  J Summy (2003)
              The Src family of non-receptor protein tyrosine kinases plays critical roles in a variety of cellular signal transduction pathways, regulating such diverse processes as cell division, motility, adhesion, angiogenesis, and survival. Constitutively activated variants of Src family kinases, including the viral oncoproteins v-Src and v-Yes, are capable of inducing malignant transformation of a variety of cell types. Src family kinases, most notably although not exclusively c-Src, are frequently overexpressed and/or aberrantly activated in a variety of epithelial and non-epithelial cancers. Activation is very common in colorectal and breast cancers, and somewhat less frequent in melanomas, ovarian cancer, gastric cancer, head and neck cancers, pancreatic cancer, lung cancer, brain cancers, and blood cancers. Further, the extent of increased Src family activity often correlates with malignant potential and patient survival. Activation of Src family kinases in human cancers may occur through a variety of mechanisms and is frequently a critical event in tumor progression. Exactly how Src family kinases contribute to individual tumors remains to be defined completely, however they appear to be important for multiple aspects of tumor progression, including proliferation, disruption of cell/cell contacts, migration, invasiveness, resistance to apoptosis, and angiogenesis. This review details the evidence for Src family activation in human tumors, and emphasizes possible consequences to tumor progression. Given the ability of Src and its family members to participate in so many aspects of tumor progression and metastasis, Src family kinases are attractive targets for future anti-cancer therapeutics.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                1177-8881
                2015
                12 March 2015
                : 9
                : 1585-1599
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Natural Medicinal Chemistry, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China
                [2 ]Laboratory of Medicinal Chemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Biomedicine and Health, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China
                [3 ]Institute of Traditional Chinese Medicine and Natural Products, College of Pharmacy, Jinan University, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Wen-Cai Ye, Department of Natural Medicinal Chemistry, China Pharmaceutical University, No 24, Tongjia Lane, Nanjing, 210009, People’s Republic of China, Email chyewc@ 123456gmail.com
                Sheng Jiang, Laboratory of Medicinal Chemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Biomedicine and Health, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No 190, Kaiyuan Avenue, Guangzhou 510530, People’s Republic of China, Email jiang_sheng@ 123456gibh.ac.cn
                Article
                dddt-9-1585
                10.2147/DDDT.S56038
                4362898
                © 2015 Ma et al. This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License

                The full terms of the License are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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