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      Emerging Therapeutics to Overcome Chemoresistance in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer: A Mini-Review

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          Abstract

          Ovarian cancer is the fifth leading cause of cancer death among women and the most lethal gynecologic malignancy. One of the leading causes of death in high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC) is chemoresistant disease, which may present as intrinsic or acquired resistance to therapies. Here we discuss some of the known molecular mechanisms of chemoresistance that have been exhaustively investigated in chemoresistant ovarian cancer, including drug efflux pump multidrug resistance protein 1 (MDR1), the epithelial–mesenchymal transition, DNA damage and repair capacity. We also discuss novel therapeutics that may address some of the challenges in bringing approaches that target chemoresistant processes from bench to bedside. Some of these new therapies include novel drug delivery systems, targets that may halt adaptive changes in the tumor, exploitation of tumor mutations that leave cancer cells vulnerable to irreversible damage, and novel drugs that target ribosomal biogenesis, a process that may be uniquely different in cancer versus non-cancerous cells. Each of these approaches, or a combination of them, may provide a greater number of positive outcomes for a broader population of HGSOC patients.

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          Most cited references 117

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          Ovarian cancer.

          Epithelial ovarian cancer is the commonest cause of gynaecological cancer-associated death. The disease typically presents in postmenopausal women, with a few months of abdominal pain and distension. Most women have advanced disease (International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics [FIGO] stage III), for which the standard of care remains surgery and platinum-based cytotoxic chemotherapy. Although this treatment can be curative for most patients with early stage disease, most women with advanced disease will develop many episodes of recurrent disease with progressively shorter disease-free intervals. These episodes culminate in chemoresistance and ultimately bowel obstruction, the most frequent cause of death. For women whose disease continues to respond to platinum-based drugs, the disease can often be controlled for 5 years or more. Targeted treatments such as antiangiogenic drugs or poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors offer potential for improved survival. The efficacy of screening, designed to detect the disease at an earlier and curable stage remains unproven, with key results expected in 2015. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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            CTLA-4 and PD-1 Pathways

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              Molecular determinants of resistance to antiandrogen therapy.

              Using microarray-based profiling of isogenic prostate cancer xenograft models, we found that a modest increase in androgen receptor mRNA was the only change consistently associated with the development of resistance to antiandrogen therapy. This increase in androgen receptor mRNA and protein was both necessary and sufficient to convert prostate cancer growth from a hormone-sensitive to a hormone-refractory stage, and was dependent on a functional ligand-binding domain. Androgen receptor antagonists showed agonistic activity in cells with increased androgen receptor levels; this antagonist-agonist conversion was associated with alterations in the recruitment of coactivators and corepressors to the promoters of androgen receptor target genes. Increased levels of androgen receptor confer resistance to antiandrogens by amplifying signal output from low levels of residual ligand, and by altering the normal response to antagonists. These findings provide insight toward the design of new antiandrogens.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Mol Sci
                Int J Mol Sci
                ijms
                International Journal of Molecular Sciences
                MDPI
                1422-0067
                18 October 2017
                October 2017
                : 18
                : 10
                Affiliations
                Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22908, USA; jrc3hg@ 123456virginia.edu (R.C.); dcl5z@ 123456virginia.edu (D.C.L.)
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: clanden@ 123456virginia.edu ; Tel.: +1-434-243-6131
                Article
                ijms-18-02171
                10.3390/ijms18102171
                5666852
                29057791
                © 2017 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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