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      Notulae to the Italian alien vascular flora: 3

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      Italian Botanist

      Pensoft Publishers

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          Abstract

          In this contribution, new data concerning the Italian distribution of alien vascular flora are presented. It includes new records, exclusions, confirmations, and status changes for Italy or for Italian administrative regions for taxa in the genera Acer, Amaranthus, Araujia, Aubrieta, Avena, Bidens, Calycanthus, Celtis, Elaeagnus, Eragrostis, Euonymus, Fallopia, Ficus, Hedera, Lantana, Ligustrum, Ludwigia, Morus, Oenothera, Opuntia, Oxalis, Parkinsonia, Paspalum, Paulownia, Platycladus, Pleuropterus, Rumex, Salvia, Senecio, Setaria, Syagrus, Tradescantia, Trifolium and Yucca. Furthermore, a new combination in the genus Vicia is proposed.

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          Systematics, biogeography, and character evolution of the legume tribe Fabeae with special focus on the middle-Atlantic island lineages

          Background Tribe Fabeae comprises about 380 legume species, including some of the most ancient and important crops like lentil, pea, and broad bean. Breeding efforts in legume crops rely on a detailed knowledge of closest wild relatives and geographic origin. Relationships within the tribe, however, are incompletely known and previous molecular results conflicted with the traditional morphology-based classification. Here we analyse the systematics, biogeography, and character evolution in the tribe based on plastid and nuclear DNA sequences. Results Phylogenetic analyses including c. 70% of the species in the tribe show that the genera Vicia and Lathyrus in their current circumscription are not monophyletic: Pisum and Vavilovia are nested in Lathyrus, the genus Lens is nested in Vicia. A small, well-supported clade including Vicia hirsuta, V. sylvatica, and some Mediterranean endemics, is the sister group to all remaining species in the tribe. Fabeae originated in the East Mediterranean region in the Miocene (23–16 million years ago (Ma)) and spread at least 39 times into Eurasia, seven times to the Americas, twice to tropical Africa and four times to Macaronesia. Broad bean (V. faba) and its sister V. paucijuga originated in Asia and might be sister to V. oroboides. Lentil (Lens culinaris ssp. culinaris) is of Mediterranean origin and together with eight very close relatives forms a clade that is nested in the core Vicia, where it evolved c. 14 Ma. The Pisum clade is nested in Lathyrus in a grade with the Mediterranean L. gloeosperma, L. neurolobus, and L. nissolia. The extinct Azorean endemic V. dennesiana belongs in section Cracca and is nested among Mediterranean species. According to our ancestral character state reconstruction results, ancestors of Fabeae had a basic chromosome number of 2n=14, an annual life form, and evenly hairy, dorsiventrally compressed styles. Conclusions Fabeae evolved in the Eastern Mediterranean in the middle Miocene and spread from there across Eurasia, into Tropical Africa, and at least seven times to the Americas. The middle-Atlantic islands were colonized four times but apparently did not serve as stepping-stones for Atlantic crossings. Long-distance dispersal events are relatively common in Fabeae (seven per ten million years). Current generic and infrageneric circumscriptions in Fabeae do not reflect monophyletic groups and should be revised. Suggestions for generic level delimitation are offered.
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            Salvia united: The greatest good for the greatest number

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              Taxonomic revision of the genus Amaranthus (Amaranthaceae) in Italy

              A taxonomic revision of the genus Amaranthus (Amaranthaceae) in Italy is here presented. Field surveys were carried out during the period 2006–2014. 58 herbaria (both European and American, including 12 personal herbaria) were consulted (more than 3,000 specimens were examined) as well as extensive literature was analized. Twenty-seven non-hybrid taxa (twenty-four species, and six varieties) are recognized (A. crassipes and A. graecizans subsp. graecizans are considered doubtful for the flora of Italy). Three taxa (A. blitum, A. cacciatoi, and A. graecizans subsp. sylvestris) are native, one (A. bouchonii) has doubtful origin, while the others are to be considered aliens, mostly neophytes native to the Americas. Information about nomenclature (accepted names, main synonyms, and types), morphology, chromosome number, chorology (for native taxa) or alien status (for exotic taxa, at national and regional levels), occurrence in Italy (at regional scale), ecology (preferential habitat, phenology, elevation), taxonomic annotations are provided for each taxon, as well as original photos were prepared. Diagnostic keys at species and infraspecific levels (for A. blitum subsp. blitum s.l., A. emarginatus s.l., and A. graecizans s.l.) are given. An isolectotype for the name A. bouchonii was found at Z. A list of the seven hybrids recorded and their main morphological characteristics are also given. Among them, A. × mauritii is recorded in the present study for the first time in Italy. The nomenclatural change Amaranthus × pyxidatus comb. et stat. nov. is proposed. Two specimens preserved at MPU are designated as lectotype and isolectotype of the name A. × mauritii s.s., while for A. × mauritii f. ramosissima the holotype was found; the two names are to be considered heterotypic synonyms (new synonymy).
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Italian Botanist
                IB
                Pensoft Publishers
                2531-4033
                May 17 2017
                May 17 2017
                : 3
                : 49-71
                Article
                10.3897/italianbotanist.3.13126
                © 2017

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