+1 Recommend
0 collections
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      Sequential introduction of single room isolation and hand hygiene campaign in the control of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in intensive care unit


      Read this article at

          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.



          After renovation of the adult intensive care unit (ICU) with installation of ten single rooms, an enhanced infection control program was conducted to control the spread of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in our hospital.


          Since the ICU renovation, all patients colonized or infected with MRSA were nursed in single rooms with contact precautions. The incidence of MRSA infection in the ICU was monitored during 3 different phases: the baseline period (phase 1); after ICU renovation (phase 2) and after implementation of a hand hygiene campaign with alcohol-based hand rub (phase 3). Patients infected with extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella species were chosen as controls because they were managed in open cubicles with standard precautions.


          Without a major change in bed occupancy rate, nursing workforce, or the protocol of environmental cleansing throughout the study period, a stepwise reduction in ICU onset nonbacteraemic MRSA infection was observed: from 3.54 (phase 1) to 2.26 (phase 2, p = 0.042) and 1.02 (phase 3, p = 0.006) per 1000-patient-days. ICU onset bacteraemic MRSA infection was significantly reduced from 1.94 (phase 1) to 0.9 (phase 2, p = 0.005) and 0.28 (phase 3, p = 0.021) per 1000-patient-days. Infection due to ESBL-producing organisms did not show a corresponding reduction. The usage density of broad-spectrum antibiotics and fluoroquinolones increased from phase 1 to 3. However a significant trend improvement of ICU onset MRSA infection by segmented regression analysis can only be demonstrated when comparison was made before and after the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) epidemic. This suggests that the deaths of fellow healthcare workers from an occupational acquired infection had an overwhelming effect on their compliance with infection control measures.


          Provision of single room isolation facilities and promotion of hand hygiene practice are important. However compliance with infection control measures relies largely on a personal commitment, which may increase when personal safety is threatened.

          Related collections

          Most cited references22

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Clinical progression and viral load in a community outbreak of coronavirus-associated SARS pneumonia: a prospective study.

          We investigated the temporal progression of the clinical, radiological, and virological changes in a community outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). We followed up 75 patients for 3 weeks managed with a standard treatment protocol of ribavirin and corticosteroids, and assessed the pattern of clinical disease, viral load, risk factors for poor clinical outcome, and the usefulness of virological diagnostic methods. Fever and pneumonia initially improved but 64 (85%) patients developed recurrent fever after a mean of 8.9 (SD 3.1) days, 55 (73%) had watery diarrhoea after 7.5 (2.3) days, 60 (80%) had radiological worsening after 7.4 (2.2) days, and respiratory symptoms worsened in 34 (45%) after 8.6 (3.0) days. In 34 (45%) patients, improvement of initial pulmonary lesions was associated with appearance of new radiological lesions at other sites. Nine (12%) patients developed spontaneous pneumomediastinum and 15 (20%) developed acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in week 3. Quantitative reverse-transcriptase (RT) PCR of nasopharyngeal aspirates in 14 patients (four with ARDS) showed peak viral load at day 10, and at day 15 a load lower than at admission. Age and chronic hepatitis B virus infection treated with lamivudine were independent significant risk factors for progression to ARDS (p=0.001). SARS-associated coronavirus in faeces was seen on RT-PCR in 65 (97%) of 67 patients at day 14. The mean time to seroconversion was 20 days. The consistent clinical progression, shifting radiological infiltrates, and an inverted V viral-load profile suggest that worsening in week 2 is unrelated to uncontrolled viral replication but may be related to immunopathological damage.
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Viral Replication in the Nasopharynx Is Associated with Diarrhea in Patients with Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome

            Abstract The role of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus as an enteric pathogen was investigated in a cohort of 142 patients with SARS who were treated with a standard treatment protocol. Data from daily hematological, biochemical, radiological, and microbiological investigations were prospectively collected, and the correlation of these findings with diarrhea was retrospectively analyzed. Sixty-nine patients (48.6%) developed diarrhea at a mean (± standard deviation [SD]) of 7.6 ± 2.6 days after the onset of symptoms. The diarrhea was most severe at a mean (±SD) of 8.8 ± 2.4 days after onset, with a maximum frequency of 24 episodes per day (median, 5 episodes; range, 3–24 episodes). A higher mean virus load in nasopharyngeal specimens obtained on day 10 after the onset of symptoms was significantly associated with the occurrence of diarrhea (3.1 log10 vs. 1.8 log10 copies/mL; P = .01) and mortality (6.2 vs. 1.7 log10 copies/mL; P < .01). However, diarrhea was not associated with mortality. The lung and the gastrointestinal tract may react differently to SARS coronavirus infection. Additional investigation of the role of SARS coronavirus in the pathogenesis of diarrhea in patients with SARS should be conducted.
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              "Colonization pressure" and risk of acquisition of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a medical intensive care unit.

              To determine the roles of "colonization pressure," work load or patient severity in patient acquisition of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in intensive care units (ICUs). Prospectively collected data from October 1996 through December 1998. A 12-bed medical ICU in a university-affiliated general hospital. Patients with risk factors for MRSA admitted to the ICU were screened within 72 hours of admission and weekly thereafter. MRSA was considered imported if detected during the first 72 hours of admission and nosocomial if detected only thereafter. Three screening strategies were used on admission during three consecutive periods. The unit of time chosen for measurements was the week. Weekly colonization pressure (WCP) was defined as the number of MRSA-carrier patient-days/total number of patient-days. Patient severity (number of deaths, Simplified Acute Physiologic Score [SAPS] II), work load (number of admis sions, Omega score), and colonization pressure (number of MRSA carriers at the time of admission, WCP) were compared with the number of MRSA-nosocomial cases during the following week. Of the 1,016 patients admitted over 116 weeks, 691 (68%) were screened. MRSA was imported in 91 (8.9%) admitted patients (13.1% of screened patients) and nosocomial in 46 (4.5%). The number of MRSA-nosocomial cases was correlated to the SAPS II (P=.007), the Omega 3 score (P=.007), the number of MRSA-imported cases (P=.01), WCP (P<.0001), and the screening period (P<.0001). In multivariate analysis, WCP was the only independent predictive factor for MRSA acquisition (P=.0002). Above 30% of WCP, the risk of acquisition of MRSA was approximately fivefold times higher (relative risk, 4.9; 95% confidence interval, 1.2-19.9; P<.0001). Acquisition of MRSA in ICU patients is strongly and independently influenced by colonization pressure.

                Author and article information

                BMC Infect Dis
                BMC Infectious Diseases
                BioMed Central
                7 September 2010
                : 10
                : 263
                [1 ]Department of Microbiology, Queen Mary Hospital, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China
                [2 ]Infection Control Unit, Queen Mary Hospital, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China
                [3 ]Intensive Care Unit, Queen Mary Hospital, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China
                [4 ]School of Public Health, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China
                [5 ]Carol Yu Centre for Infection, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China
                Copyright ©2010 Cheng et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                : 23 March 2010
                : 7 September 2010
                Research Article

                Infectious disease & Microbiology
                Infectious disease & Microbiology


                Comment on this article