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      Rolipram, a Selective Phosphodiesterase 4 Inhibitor, Ameliorates Mechanical Hyperalgesia in a Rat Model of Chemotherapy-Induced Neuropathic Pain through Inhibition of Inflammatory Cytokines in the Dorsal Root Ganglion

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          Abstract

          Chemotherapy-induced neuropathic pain is a significant side effect of chemotherapeutic agents and is the most common reason for stopping chemotherapy. The aim of the present study was to find the major site and mechanisms of action by which rolipram, a selective phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitor, alleviates paclitaxel-induced neuropathic pain. Chemotherapy-induced neuropathic pain was induced in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats by intraperitoneal injection of paclitaxel on four alternate days. Rolipram was administered systemically or locally into the lumbar spinal cord, L5 dorsal root ganglion, sciatic nerve, or skin nerve terminal. The mechanical threshold, the protein level of several inflammatory cytokines, and the cellular locations of phosphodiesterase-4 and interleukin-1β in the dorsal root ganglion were measured by using behavioral testing, Western blotting, and immunohistochemistry, respectively. The local administration (0.03-mg) of rolipram in the L5 dorsal root ganglion ameliorated paclitaxel-induced pain behavior more effectively than did local administration in the other sites. Paclitaxel significantly increased the expression of inflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor-α (2.2 times) and interleukin-1β (2.7 times) in the lumbar dorsal root ganglion, and rolipram significantly decreased it. In addition, phosphodiesterase-4 and interleukin-1β were expressed in the dorsal root ganglion neurons and satellite cells and paclitaxel significantly increased the intensity of interleukin-1β (2 times) and rolipram significantly decreased it. These results suggest that the major site of action of rolipram on paclitaxel-induced neuropathic pain in rats was the dorsal root ganglion. Rolipram decreased the expression of inflammatory cytokines in the dorsal root ganglion. Thus, phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitors may ameliorate chemotherapy-induced neuropathic pain by decreasing expression of inflammatory cytokines in the dorsal root ganglion.

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          Quantitative assessment of tactile allodynia in the rat paw

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              PDE4 cAMP phosphodiesterases: modular enzymes that orchestrate signalling cross-talk, desensitization and compartmentalization.

              cAMP is a second messenger that controls many key cellular functions. The only way to inactivate cAMP is to degrade it through the action of cAMP phosphodiesterases (PDEs). PDEs are thus poised to play a key regulatory role. PDE4 cAMP-specific phosphodiesterases appear to have specific functions with selective inhibitors serving as potent anti-inflammatory agents. The recent elucidation of the structure of the PDE4 catalytic unit allows for molecular insight into the mode of catalysis as well as substrate and inhibitor selectivity. The four PDE4 genes encode over 16 isoforms, each of which is characterized by a unique N-terminal region. PDE4 isoforms play a pivotal role in controlling functionally and spatially distinct pools of cAMP by virtue of their unique intracellular targeting. Targeting occurs by association with proteins, such as arrestins, SRC family tyrosyl kinases, A-kinase anchoring proteins ('AKAPs') and receptor for activated C kinase 1 ('RACK1'), and, in the case of isoform PDE4A1, by a specific interaction (TAPAS-1) with phosphatidic acid. PDE4 isoforms are 'designed' to be regulated by extracellular-signal-related protein kinase (ERK), which binds to anchor sites on the PDE4 catalytic domain that it phosphorylates. The upstream conserved region 1 (UCR1) and 2 (UCR2) modules that abut the PDE4 catalytic unit confer regulatory functions by orchestrating the functional outcome of phosphorylation by cAMP-dependent protein kinase ('PKA') and ERK. PDE4 enzymes stand at a crossroads that allows them to integrate various signalling pathways with that of cAMP in spatially distinct compartments.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Front Pharmacol
                Front Pharmacol
                Front. Pharmacol.
                Frontiers in Pharmacology
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                1663-9812
                04 December 2017
                2017
                : 8
                10.3389/fphar.2017.00885
                5723089
                Copyright © 2017 Kim, Hwang, Oh and Abdi.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

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                Figures: 4, Tables: 1, Equations: 0, References: 40, Pages: 9, Words: 0
                Categories
                Pharmacology
                Original Research

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