Weight-based GH dosing results in a wide variation in growth response in children with GH deficiency (GHD) or idiopathic short stature (ISS). The hypothesis tested was whether individualized GH doses, based on variation in GH responsiveness estimated by a prediction model, reduced variability in growth response around a set height target compared with a standardized weight-based dose. A total of 153 short prepubertal children diagnosed with isolated GHD or ISS (n = 43) and at least 1 SD score (SDS) below midparental height SDS (MPH(SDS)) were included in this 2-yr multicenter study. The children were randomized to either a standard (43 microg/kg.d) or individualized (17-100 microg/kg.d) GH dose. We measured the deviation of height(SDS) from individual MPH(SDS) (diffMPH(SDS)). The primary endpoint was the difference in the range of diffMPH(SDS) between the two groups. The diffMPH(SDS) range was reduced by 32% in the individualized-dose group relative to the standard-dose group (P < 0.003), whereas the mean diffMPH(SDS) was equal: -0.42 +/- 0.46 and -0.48 +/- 0.67, respectively. Gain in height(SDS) 0-2 yr was equal for the GH-deficient and ISS groups: 1.31 +/- 0.47 and 1.36 +/- 0.47, respectively, when ISS was classified on the basis of maximum GH peak on the arginine-insulin tolerance test or 24-h profile. Individualized GH doses during catch-up growth significantly reduce the proportion of unexpectedly good and poor responders around a predefined individual growth target and result in equal growth responses in children with GHD and ISS.