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      Interpretation of glucocorticoids in neonatal hair: a reflection of intrauterine glucocorticoid regulation?

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          Abstract

          Background

          Glucocorticoids (GCs) measured in neonatal hair might reflect intrauterine as well as postpartum GC regulation. We aimed to identify factors associated with neonatal hair GC levels in early life, and their correlation with maternal hair GCs.

          Methods

          In a single-center observational study, mother–infant pairs ( n = 107) admitted for >72 h at the maternity ward of a general hospital were included. At birth and an outpatient visit (OPV, n = 72, 44 ± 11 days postpartum), maternal and neonatal hair was analyzed for cortisol and cortisone levels by LC–MS/MS. Data were analyzed regarding: (1) neonatal GC levels postpartum and at the OPV, (2) associations of neonatal GC levels with maternal GC levels and (3) with other perinatal factors.

          Results

          (1) Neonatal GC levels were >5 times higher than maternal levels, with a decrease in ±50% between birth and the OPV for cortisol. (2) Maternal and neonatal cortisol, but not cortisone, levels were correlated both at postpartum and at the OPV. (3) Gestational age was associated with neonatal GC postpartum (log-transformed β (95% CI): cortisol 0.07 (0.04–0.10); cortisone 0.04 (0.01–0.06)) and at the OPV (cortisol 0.08 (0.04–0.12); cortisone 0.00 (−0.04 to 0.04)), while weaker associations were found between neonatal GCs and other perinatal and maternal factors.

          Conclusions

          Neonatal hair GCs mainly reflect the third trimester increase in cortisol, which might be caused by the positive feedback loop, a placenta-driven phenomenon, represented by the positive association with GA. Between birth and 1.5 months postpartum, neonatal hair cortisol concentrations decrease sharply, but still appear to reflect both intra- and extrauterine periods.

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          Most cited references 29

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          Hair cortisol, stress exposure, and mental health in humans: a systematic review.

          The deleterious effects of chronic stress on health and its contribution to the development of mental illness attract broad attention worldwide. An important development in the last few years has been the employment of hair cortisol analysis with its unique possibility to assess the long-term systematic levels of cortisol retrospectively. This review makes a first attempt to systematically synthesize the body of published research on hair cortisol, chronic stress, and mental health. The results of hair cortisol studies are contrasted and integrated with literature on acutely circulating cortisol as measured in bodily fluids, thereby combining cortisol baseline concentration and cortisol reactivity in an attempt to understand the cortisol dynamics in the development and/or maintenance of mental illnesses. The studies on hair cortisol and chronic stress show increased hair cortisol levels in a wide range of contexts/situations (e.g. endurance athletes, shift work, unemployment, chronic pain, stress in neonates, major life events). With respect to mental illnesses, the results differed between diagnoses. In major depression, the hair cortisol concentrations appear to be increased, whereas for bipolar disorder, cortisol concentrations were only increased in patients with a late age-of-onset. In patients with anxiety (generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder), hair cortisol levels were reported to be decreased. The same holds true for patients with posttraumatic stress disorder, in whom - after an initial increase in cortisol release - the cortisol output decreases below baseline. The effect sizes are calculated when descriptive statistics are provided, to enable preliminary comparisons across the different laboratories. For exposure to chronic stressors, the effect sizes on hair cortisol levels were medium to large, whereas for psychopathology, the effect sizes were small to medium. This is a first implication that the dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in the development and/or maintenance of psychopathology may be more subtle than it is in healthy but chronically stressed populations. Future research possibilities regarding the application of hair cortisol research in mental health and the need for multidisciplinary approaches are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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            Prenatal Stress, Glucocorticoids and the Programming of Adult Disease

            Numerous clinical studies associate an adverse prenatal environment with the development of cardio-metabolic disorders and neuroendocrine dysfunction, as well as an increased risk of psychiatric diseases in later life. Experimentally, prenatal exposure to stress or excess glucocorticoids in a variety of animal models can malprogram offspring physiology, resulting in a reduction in birth weight and subsequently increasing the likelihood of disorders of cardiovascular function, glucose homeostasis, hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis activity and anxiety-related behaviours in adulthood. During fetal development, placental 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11β-HSD2) provides a barrier to maternal glucocorticoids. Reduced placental 11β-HSD2 in human pregnancy correlates with lower birth weight and higher blood pressure in later life. Similarly, in animal models, inhibition or knockout of placental 11β-HSD2 lowers offspring birth weight, in part by reducing glucose delivery to the developing fetus in late gestation. Molecular mechanisms thought to underlie the programming effects of early life stress and glucocorticoids include epigenetic changes in target chromatin, notably affecting tissue-specific expression of the intracellular glucocorticoid receptor (GR). As such, excess glucocorticoids in early life can permanently alter tissue glucocorticoid signalling, effects which may have short-term adaptive benefits but increase the risk of later disease.
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              Fetal exposure to maternal cortisol.

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Endocr Connect
                Endocr Connect
                EC
                Endocrine Connections
                Bioscientifica Ltd (Bristol )
                2049-3614
                November 2017
                27 September 2017
                : 6
                : 8
                : 692-699
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Pediatric Endocrinology VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
                [2 ]Department of Pediatrics Psychiatry Obstetrics Pediatrics Expert Center, OLVG West, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
                [3 ]Department of Clinical Chemistry Erasmus MC, University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
                [4 ]Department of Pediatric Endocrinology Erasmus MC Sophia Children’s Hospital, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
                [5 ]Department of Psychiatry VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
                Author notes
                Correspondence should be addressed to J J Hollanders; Email: j.hollanders@ 123456vumc.nl
                Article
                EC170179
                10.1530/EC-17-0179
                5655682
                28954736
                © 2017 The authors
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