Cancer is considered as one of the deadliest human diseases today. Angiogenesis, the propagation of new blood vessels from pre-existing vasculature, is a critical step in the progression of cancer as it is essential in the growth and metastasis of tumors. Hence, suppression of angiogenesis is a promising approach in cancer therapy. Syringin, a phenylpropanoid glycoside with a molecular formula of C 17H 24O 9, has been found to exhibit chemopreventive effects. However, its anti-angiogenic activity and the underlying mechanism of action are still unknown.
In this work, in ovo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay has been conducted to evaluate the effect of syringin on neovascularization. Additionally, reverse molecular docking studies have been performed in order to identify the probable enzyme targets in the angiogenesis pathway.
Treatment with syringin showed significant dose-dependent inhibition of blood vessel length and junctions in the CAM of duck eggs; the anti-angiogenic activity of syringin at 100 µM and 200 µM is comparable with 200 µM of the positive control celecoxib. The results of reverse docking studies indicate that syringin binds the strongest to dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) and, to some extent, with transforming growth factor-beta receptor type 1 (TGF-βR1), vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2), and matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2). Furthermore, ADMET models revealed that syringin potentially possesses excellent pharmacokinetic and toxicity profiles.