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      In Ovo and In Silico Evaluation of the Anti-Angiogenic Potential of Syringin

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          Abstract

          Introduction

          Cancer is considered as one of the deadliest human diseases today. Angiogenesis, the propagation of new blood vessels from pre-existing vasculature, is a critical step in the progression of cancer as it is essential in the growth and metastasis of tumors. Hence, suppression of angiogenesis is a promising approach in cancer therapy. Syringin, a phenylpropanoid glycoside with a molecular formula of C 17H 24O 9, has been found to exhibit chemopreventive effects. However, its anti-angiogenic activity and the underlying mechanism of action are still unknown.

          Methods

          In this work, in ovo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay has been conducted to evaluate the effect of syringin on neovascularization. Additionally, reverse molecular docking studies have been performed in order to identify the probable enzyme targets in the angiogenesis pathway.

          Results

          Treatment with syringin showed significant dose-dependent inhibition of blood vessel length and junctions in the CAM of duck eggs; the anti-angiogenic activity of syringin at 100 µM and 200 µM is comparable with 200 µM of the positive control celecoxib. The results of reverse docking studies indicate that syringin binds the strongest to dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) and, to some extent, with transforming growth factor-beta receptor type 1 (TGF-βR1), vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2), and matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2). Furthermore, ADMET models revealed that syringin potentially possesses excellent pharmacokinetic and toxicity profiles.

          Conclusion

          This study demonstrates the potential of syringin as an anti-angiogenic agent and elicits further investigations to establish its application in cancer suppression.

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          Most cited references 101

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          UCSF Chimera--a visualization system for exploratory research and analysis.

          The design, implementation, and capabilities of an extensible visualization system, UCSF Chimera, are discussed. Chimera is segmented into a core that provides basic services and visualization, and extensions that provide most higher level functionality. This architecture ensures that the extension mechanism satisfies the demands of outside developers who wish to incorporate new features. Two unusual extensions are presented: Multiscale, which adds the ability to visualize large-scale molecular assemblies such as viral coats, and Collaboratory, which allows researchers to share a Chimera session interactively despite being at separate locales. Other extensions include Multalign Viewer, for showing multiple sequence alignments and associated structures; ViewDock, for screening docked ligand orientations; Movie, for replaying molecular dynamics trajectories; and Volume Viewer, for display and analysis of volumetric data. A discussion of the usage of Chimera in real-world situations is given, along with anticipated future directions. Chimera includes full user documentation, is free to academic and nonprofit users, and is available for Microsoft Windows, Linux, Apple Mac OS X, SGI IRIX, and HP Tru64 Unix from http://www.cgl.ucsf.edu/chimera/. Copyright 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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            AutoDock Vina: improving the speed and accuracy of docking with a new scoring function, efficient optimization, and multithreading.

             Oleg Trott,  Jay Olson (2010)
            AutoDock Vina, a new program for molecular docking and virtual screening, is presented. AutoDock Vina achieves an approximately two orders of magnitude speed-up compared with the molecular docking software previously developed in our lab (AutoDock 4), while also significantly improving the accuracy of the binding mode predictions, judging by our tests on the training set used in AutoDock 4 development. Further speed-up is achieved from parallelism, by using multithreading on multicore machines. AutoDock Vina automatically calculates the grid maps and clusters the results in a way transparent to the user. Copyright 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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              Discovery and development of sorafenib: a multikinase inhibitor for treating cancer.

              Since the molecular revolution of the 1980s, knowledge of the aetiology of cancer has increased considerably, which has led to the discovery and development of targeted therapies tailored to inhibit cancer-specific pathways. The introduction and refinement of rapid, high-throughput screening technologies over the past decade has greatly facilitated this targeted discovery and development process. Here, we describe the discovery and continuing development of sorafenib (previously known as BAY 43-9006), the first oral multikinase inhibitor that targets Raf and affects tumour signalling and the tumour vasculature. The discovery cycle of sorafenib (Nexavar; Bayer Pharmaceuticals) - from initial screening for a lead compound to FDA approval for the treatment of advanced renal cell carcinoma in December 2005 - was completed in just 11 years, with approval being received approximately 5 years after the initiation of the first Phase I trial.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                dddt
                dddt
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove
                1177-8881
                25 November 2020
                2020
                : 14
                : 5189-5204
                Affiliations
                [1 ]The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas , Manila 1015, Philippines
                [2 ]Department of Physical Sciences and Mathematics, College of Arts and Sciences, University of the Philippines Manila , Manila, Philippines
                [3 ]Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Santo Tomas , Manila 1015, Philippines
                [4 ]Research Center for the Natural and Applied Sciences, University of Santo Tomas , Manila 1015, Philippines
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Junie B BillonesDepartment of Physical Sciences and Mathematics, College of Arts and Sciences, University of the Philippines Manila , Padre Faura, Manila1000, Philippines Email jbbillones@up.edu.ph
                Article
                271952
                10.2147/DDDT.S271952
                7701684
                33268982
                © 2020 Aventurado et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 8, References: 104, Pages: 16
                Categories
                Original Research

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