Lake Poso, an ancient lake system on the Indonesian island Sulawesi, harbours an endemic species flock of six, four lacustrine and two riverine species of the freshwater shrimp genus Caridina . In this study, five new lacustrine species are described, bringing the total to eleven species altogether. The number of lacustrine species is more than doubled to nine species compared to the last taxonomic revision in 2009. One of them, Caridina mayamareenae Klotz, Wowor & von Rintelen, sp. nov., even represents the first case of an atyid shrimp associated with freshwater snails which is morphologically adapted to living in shells. An integrative approach was used by providing a combination of morphological, ecological, and molecular data. Based on standard morphological characters, distribution, substrate preferences, and colouration of living specimens in the field, five distinct undescribed species could be distinguished. To support our species-hypothesis based on the mitochondrial genes 16S and COI, a molecular phylogeny was used for all eleven species from Lake Poso. All species form a well-supported monophyletic group, but only four morphospecies consistently correspond to mtDNA clades – a possible reason could be introgressive hybridisation, incomplete lineage sorting, or not yet fixed species boundaries. These results are discussed further in the context of adaptive radiation, which turned out to be more diverse than previously described. Finally, yet importantly, subjecting all new species to similar threats and to the same IUCN category and criterion than the previously described species from the lake is recommended.