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      Lake Poso's shrimp fauna revisited: the description of five new species of the genus Caridina (Crustacea, Decapoda, Atyidae) more than doubles the number of endemic lacustrine species

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          Lake Poso, an ancient lake system on the Indonesian island Sulawesi, harbours an endemic species flock of six, four lacustrine and two riverine species of the freshwater shrimp genus Caridina . In this study, five new lacustrine species are described, bringing the total to eleven species altogether. The number of lacustrine species is more than doubled to nine species compared to the last taxonomic revision in 2009. One of them, Caridina mayamareenae Klotz, Wowor & von Rintelen, sp. nov., even represents the first case of an atyid shrimp associated with freshwater snails which is morphologically adapted to living in shells. An integrative approach was used by providing a combination of morphological, ecological, and molecular data. Based on standard morphological characters, distribution, substrate preferences, and colouration of living specimens in the field, five distinct undescribed species could be distinguished. To support our species-hypothesis based on the mitochondrial genes 16S and COI, a molecular phylogeny was used for all eleven species from Lake Poso. All species form a well-supported monophyletic group, but only four morphospecies consistently correspond to mtDNA clades – a possible reason could be introgressive hybridisation, incomplete lineage sorting, or not yet fixed species boundaries. These results are discussed further in the context of adaptive radiation, which turned out to be more diverse than previously described. Finally, yet importantly, subjecting all new species to similar threats and to the same IUCN category and criterion than the previously described species from the lake is recommended.

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          Most cited references 29

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          MAFFT Multiple Sequence Alignment Software Version 7: Improvements in Performance and Usability

          We report a major update of the MAFFT multiple sequence alignment program. This version has several new features, including options for adding unaligned sequences into an existing alignment, adjustment of direction in nucleotide alignment, constrained alignment and parallel processing, which were implemented after the previous major update. This report shows actual examples to explain how these features work, alone and in combination. Some examples incorrectly aligned by MAFFT are also shown to clarify its limitations. We discuss how to avoid misalignments, and our ongoing efforts to overcome such limitations.
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            MEGA X: Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis across Computing Platforms.

            The Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis (Mega) software implements many analytical methods and tools for phylogenomics and phylomedicine. Here, we report a transformation of Mega to enable cross-platform use on Microsoft Windows and Linux operating systems. Mega X does not require virtualization or emulation software and provides a uniform user experience across platforms. Mega X has additionally been upgraded to use multiple computing cores for many molecular evolutionary analyses. Mega X is available in two interfaces (graphical and command line) and can be downloaded from www.megasoftware.net free of charge.
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              IQ-TREE: A Fast and Effective Stochastic Algorithm for Estimating Maximum-Likelihood Phylogenies

              Large phylogenomics data sets require fast tree inference methods, especially for maximum-likelihood (ML) phylogenies. Fast programs exist, but due to inherent heuristics to find optimal trees, it is not clear whether the best tree is found. Thus, there is need for additional approaches that employ different search strategies to find ML trees and that are at the same time as fast as currently available ML programs. We show that a combination of hill-climbing approaches and a stochastic perturbation method can be time-efficiently implemented. If we allow the same CPU time as RAxML and PhyML, then our software IQ-TREE found higher likelihoods between 62.2% and 87.1% of the studied alignments, thus efficiently exploring the tree-space. If we use the IQ-TREE stopping rule, RAxML and PhyML are faster in 75.7% and 47.1% of the DNA alignments and 42.2% and 100% of the protein alignments, respectively. However, the range of obtaining higher likelihoods with IQ-TREE improves to 73.3-97.1%.

                Author and article information

                Pensoft Publishers
                04 January 2021
                : 1009
                : 81-122
                [1 ] Wiesenweg 1, A-6063 Rum, Austria Unaffiliated Rum Austria
                [2 ] Museum für Naturkunde, Leibniz Institute for Evolution and Biodiversity Science, Invalidenstr. 43, D-10115 Berlin, Germany Leibniz Institute for Evolution and Biodiversity Science Berlin Germany
                [3 ] Division of Zoology, Research Center for Biology, Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI), Jalan Raya Jakarta Bogor Km 46, Cibinong 16911, Indonesia Research Center for Biology, Indonesian Institute of Sciences Cibinong Indonesia
                [4 ] Waldstrasse 5a, D-66999 Hinterweidenthal, Germany Unaffiliated Hinterweidenthal Germany
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Werner Klotz ( wklotz@ 123456aon.at )

                Academic editor: I.S. Wehrtmann

                Werner Klotz, Thomas von Rintelen, Daisy Wowor, Christian Lukhaup, Kristina von Rintelen

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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