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      One-year monthly quantitative survey of noroviruses, enteroviruses, and adenoviruses in wastewater collected from six plants in Japan

      , , , , , ,

      Water Research

      Elsevier BV

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          Abstract

          Sewerage systems are important nodes to monitor human enteric pathogens transmitted via water. A quantitative virus survey was performed once a month for a year to understand the seasonal profiles of noroviruses genotype 1 and genotype 2, enteroviruses, and adenoviruses in sewerage systems. A total of 72 samples of influent, secondary-treated wastewater before chlorination and effluent were collected from six wastewater treatment plants in Japan. Viruses were successfully recovered from 100ml of influent and 1000ml of the secondary-treated wastewater and effluent using the acid rinse method. Viruses were determined by the RT-PCR or PCR method to obtain the most probable number for each sample. All the samples were also assayed for fecal coliforms (FCs) by a double-layer method. The seasonal profiles of noroviruses genotype 1 and genotype 2 in influent were very similar, i.e. they were abundant in winter (from November to March) at a geometric mean value of 190 and 200 RT-PCR units/ml, respectively, and less frequent in summer (from June to September), at 4.9 and 9.1 RT-PCR units/ml, respectively. The concentrations of enteroviruses and adenoviruses were mostly constant all the year round, 17 RT-PCR units/ml and 320 PCR units/ml in influent, and 0.044 RT-PCR units/ml and 7.0 PCR units/ml in effluent, respectively.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          Water Research
          Water Research
          Elsevier BV
          00431354
          March 2008
          March 2008
          : 42
          : 6-7
          : 1441-1448
          Article
          10.1016/j.watres.2007.10.029
          17996920
          © 2008

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