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      Thirty-Eight-Year Follow-Up of Two Sibling Lipoid Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia Patients Due to Homozygous Steroidogenic Acute Regulatory (STARD1) Protein Mutation. Molecular Structure and Modeling of the STARD1 L275P Mutation

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          Abstract

          Objective: Review the impact of StAR (STARD1) mutations on steroidogenesis and fertility in LCAH patients. Examine the endocrine mechanisms underlying the pathology of the disorder and the appropriate therapy for promoting fertility and pregnancies.

          Design: Published data in the literature and a detailed 38-year follow-up of two sibling LCAH patients. Molecular structure and modeling of the STARD1 L275P mutation.

          Setting: University hospital.

          Patients: Patient A (46,XY female phenotype) and patient B (46,XX female) with LCAH bearing the L275P mutation in STARD1.

          Interventions: Since early-age diagnosis, both patients underwent corticoid replacement therapy. Patient A received estrogen therapy at pubertal age. Clomiphene therapy was given to Patient B to induce ovulation. Pregnancies were protected with progesterone administration.

          Main Outcome Measures: Clinical and molecular assessment of adrenal and gonadal functions.

          Results: Both patients have classic manifestations of corticosteroid deficiency observed in LCAH. Time of onset and severity were different. Patient A developed into a female phenotype due to early and severe damage of Leydig cells. Patient B started a progressive pubertal development, menarche and regular non-ovulatory cycle. She was able to have successful pregnancies.

          Conclusions: Understanding the molecular structure and function of STARD1 in all steroidogenic tissues is the key for comprehending the heterogeneous clinical manifestations of LCAH, and the development of an appropriate strategy for the induction of ovulation and protecting pregnancies in this disease.

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          Most cited references 79

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          Role of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein in adrenal and gonadal steroidogenesis.

          Congenital lipoid adrenal hyperplasia is an autosomal recessive disorder that is characterized by impaired synthesis of all adrenal and gonadal steroid hormones. In three unrelated individuals with this disorder, steroidogenic acute regulatory protein, which enhances the mitochondrial conversion of cholesterol into pregnenolone, was mutated and nonfunctional, providing genetic evidence that this protein is indispensable normal adrenal and gonadal steroidogenesis.
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            The purification, cloning, and expression of a novel luteinizing hormone-induced mitochondrial protein in MA-10 mouse Leydig tumor cells. Characterization of the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR).

            The acute response of steroidogenic cells to trophic hormone stimulation is the mobilization of cholesterol from cellular stores to the mitochondrial outer membrane and the transfer of this cholesterol to the mitochondrial inner membrane where the first enzymatic step in steroidogenesis occurs. The transfer of cholesterol across the mitochondrial membranes is dependent upon de novo protein synthesis, and this is the regulated step in the process. Although the newly synthesized regulatory protein(s) have yet to be identified, we previously have proposed a candidate protein which we identified in MA-10 cells that is synthesized in response to luteinizing hormone stimulation and that is localized to the mitochondria. In the present study, we report the isolation of a cDNA that encodes this luteinizing hormone-induced protein. Analysis of the cDNA and protein sequences reveals this is a novel protein. Importantly, we demonstrate for the first time that expression of the protein in MA-10 cells in the absence of hormone stimulation is sufficient to induce steroid production. We conclude that this protein is required in the acute regulation of steroidogenesis and propose to call this protein the Steroidogenic Acute Regulatory protein (StAR).
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              START: a lipid-binding domain in StAR, HD-ZIP and signalling proteins.

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Front Neurosci
                Front Neurosci
                Front. Neurosci.
                Frontiers in Neuroscience
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                1662-4548
                1662-453X
                21 November 2016
                2016
                : 10
                Affiliations
                1Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Sherbrooke Sherbrooke, QC, Canada
                2Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, University of Sherbrooke Sherbrooke, QC, Canada
                3Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Sherbrooke Sherbrooke, QC, Canada
                Author notes

                Edited by: Andre Lacroix, Université de Montréal, Canada

                Reviewed by: Walter L. Miller, University California San Francisco, USA; Richard Joseph Auchus, University of Michigan, USA

                *Correspondence: Jean-Guy LeHoux jean-guy.lehoux@ 123456usherbrooke.ca

                This article was submitted to Neuroendocrine Science, a section of the journal Frontiers in Neuroscience

                Article
                10.3389/fnins.2016.00527
                5116571
                Copyright © 2016 Khoury, Barbar, Ainmelk, Ouellet, Lavigne and LeHoux.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Page count
                Figures: 5, Tables: 3, Equations: 0, References: 91, Pages: 16, Words: 13169
                Funding
                Funded by: Canadian Institutes of Health Research 10.13039/501100000024
                Award ID: MT-10983
                Categories
                Neuroscience
                Original Research

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