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      Severe reduction in leukocyte adhesion and monocyte extravasation in mice deficient in CC chemokine receptor 2

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          Most cited references 36

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          HPRT-deficient (Lesch-Nyhan) mouse embryos derived from germline colonization by cultured cells.

          Embryonal stem (ES) cell lines, established in culture from peri-implantation mouse blastocysts, can colonize both the somatic and germ-cell lineages of chimaeric mice following injection into host blastocysts. Recently, ES cells with multiple integrations of retroviral sequences have been used to introduce these sequences into the germ-line of chimaeric mice, demonstrating an alternative to the microinjection of fertilized eggs for the production of transgenic mice. However, the properties of ES cells raise a unique possibility: that of using the techniques of somatic cell genetics to select cells with genetic modifications such as recessive mutations, and of introducing these mutations into the mouse germ line. Here we report the realization of this possibility by the selection in vitro of variant ES cells deficient in hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (HPRT; EC 2.4.2.8), their use to produce germline chimaeras resulting in female offspring heterozygous for HPRT-deficiency, and the generation of HPRT-deficient preimplantation embryos from these females. In human males, HPRT deficiency causes Lesch-Nyhan syndrome, which is characterized by mental retardation and self-mutilation.
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            Monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 acts as a T-lymphocyte chemoattractant.

            We have utilized a transendothelial lymphocyte chemotaxis assay to identify and purify a lymphocyte chemoattractant in supernatants of mitogen-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Amino acid sequence analysis revealed identity with monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), a chemoattractant previously thought to be specific for monocytes. Recombinant MCP-1 is chemoattractive for purified T lymphocytes and for CD3+ lymphocytes in peripheral blood lymphocyte preparations. The T-cell response to MCP-1 is dose-dependent and chemotactic, rather than chemokinetic. Phenotyping of chemoattracted T lymphocytes shows they are an activated memory subset. The response to MCP-1 by T lymphocytes can be duplicated in the absence of an endothelial monolayer and the majority of T-lymphocyte chemotactic activity in mitogen-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cell supernatants can be neutralized by antibody to MCP-1. Thus, MCP-1 is the major lymphocyte chemoattractant secreted by mitogen-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells and is capable of acting as a potent T-lymphocyte, as well as monocyte, chemoattractant. This may help explain why monocytes and T lymphocytes of the memory subset are always found together at sites of antigen-induced inflammation.
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              Properties of the novel proinflammatory supergene "intercrine" cytokine family.

              A family consisting of at least ten distinct novel 8-10 kd cytokines has been identified over the past 12 years. These cytokines exhibit from 20 to 45% homology in amino acid sequence, are probably all basic heparin-binding polypeptides, and have proinflammatory and reparative activities. The cDNA for these cytokines are characterized by conserved single open reading frames, typical signal sequences in the 5' region, and AT rich sequences in the 3' untranslated regions. Those human cytokines known as interleukin 8, platelet factor 4, beta thromboglobulin, IP-10 and melanoma growth stimulating factor or GRO can be assigned to a subfamily based on their location on chromosome 4 and unique structural features, whereas the second subset consisting of LD78, ACT-2, I-309, RANTES, and macrophage chemotactic and activating factor (MCAF) are all closely linked on human chromosome 17. In this review we have summarized and discussed the available information concerning the regulation and structure of the genes, the structure and biochemical properties of the polypeptide products, their receptors, signal transduction, cell sources, and in vitro as well as in vivo activities of these cytokines.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
                Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
                Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
                0027-8424
                1091-6490
                October 28 1997
                October 28 1997
                : 94
                : 22
                : 12053-12058
                Article
                10.1073/pnas.94.22.12053
                © 1997
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