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      Fishes community composition and patterns of species distribution in Neotropical streams Translated title: Composição da comunidade de peixes e padrões de distribuição de espécies em riachos Neotropiacais

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          Abstract

          Abstract: The ichthyofauna of streams in the Neotropical region is not yet fully known. This study aims to investigate the ichthyofauna composition of six streams of the Ijuí River sub-basin, Rio Grande do Sul State, inserted in the Uruguay River basin, as to contribute to the knowledge of fishes species richness and distribution in the south of Brazil. Sampling was carried out between July 2015 and May 2016, bimonthly, using the technique of electric fishing to collect the fishes. Spatial variations (per sampled stream) in the ichthyofauna composition were tested with a permutational multivariate analysis of variance. In total, we collected 5,029 individuals from 55 species, 13 families and five orders. From these species, 17 are endemic to the Uruguay River basin. Five species alone represented approximately 70% of the ichthyofauna abundance sampled. Our hypothesis that the fish community composition is not homogeneous along the streams sampled was confirmed and we observed that species complexity increases from the upstream closest area to the downstream according to the river continuum concept.

          Translated abstract

          Resumo: A ictiofauna de riachos na região Neotropical ainda não é totalmente conhecida. Este estudo objetiva investigar a composição da ictiofauna de seis riachos da sub-bacia do rio Ijuí, estado do Rio Grande do Sul, inseridos na bacia do rio Uruguai, de forma a contribuir no conhecimento da riqueza e distribuição de espécies de peixes no sul do Brasil. A amostragem foi realizada entre julho de 2015 e maio de 2016, bimestralmente, utilizando a técnica da pesca elétrica. Variações espaciais (por riacho amostrado) na composição da ictiofauna foram testadas com uma análise de variância multivariada permutacional. No total, coletamos 5029 indivíduos de 55 espécies, 13 famílias e cinco ordens. Destas espécies, 17 são endêmicas da bacia do rio Uruguai. Cinco espécies sozinhas representaram aproximadamente 70% da abundância da ictiofauna amostrada. Nossa hipótese de que a composição da comunidade de peixes não é homogênea ao longo dos riachos amostrados foi confirmada e observamos que a complexidade das espécies aumenta de áreas à montante em direção à jusante, conforme o conceito do rio contínuo.

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          Phylogenetic classification of bony fishes

          Background Fish classifications, as those of most other taxonomic groups, are being transformed drastically as new molecular phylogenies provide support for natural groups that were unanticipated by previous studies. A brief review of the main criteria used by ichthyologists to define their classifications during the last 50 years, however, reveals slow progress towards using an explicit phylogenetic framework. Instead, the trend has been to rely, in varying degrees, on deep-rooted anatomical concepts and authority, often mixing taxa with explicit phylogenetic support with arbitrary groupings. Two leading sources in ichthyology frequently used for fish classifications (JS Nelson’s volumes of Fishes of the World and W. Eschmeyer’s Catalog of Fishes) fail to adopt a global phylogenetic framework despite much recent progress made towards the resolution of the fish Tree of Life. The first explicit phylogenetic classification of bony fishes was published in 2013, based on a comprehensive molecular phylogeny (www.deepfin.org). We here update the first version of that classification by incorporating the most recent phylogenetic results. Results The updated classification presented here is based on phylogenies inferred using molecular and genomic data for nearly 2000 fishes. A total of 72 orders (and 79 suborders) are recognized in this version, compared with 66 orders in version 1. The phylogeny resolves placement of 410 families, or ~80% of the total of 514 families of bony fishes currently recognized. The ordinal status of 30 percomorph families included in this study, however, remains uncertain (incertae sedis in the series Carangaria, Ovalentaria, or Eupercaria). Comments to support taxonomic decisions and comparisons with conflicting taxonomic groups proposed by others are presented. We also highlight cases were morphological support exist for the groups being classified. Conclusions This version of the phylogenetic classification of bony fishes is substantially improved, providing resolution for more taxa than previous versions, based on more densely sampled phylogenetic trees. The classification presented in this study represents, unlike any other, the most up-to-date hypothesis of the Tree of Life of fishes. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12862-017-0958-3) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
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            Influence of Tributary Spatial Position on the Structure of Warmwater Fish Communities

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              Why are there so many species in the tropics?

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Journal
                bn
                Biota Neotropica
                Biota Neotrop.
                Instituto Virtual da Biodiversidade | BIOTA - FAPESP (Campinas, SP, Brazil )
                1676-0611
                2020
                : 20
                : 1
                Affiliations
                Porto Alegre Rio Grande do Sul orgnameUniversidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul orgdiv1Departamento de Zoologia orgdiv2Programa de Pós-Graduação em Biologia Animal Brazil
                Article
                S1676-06032020000100302 S1676-0603(20)02000100302
                10.1590/1676-0611-bn-2019-0828

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

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                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 48, Pages: 0
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