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      Protanthomyza grimaldii sp. nov., a further member of the extinct subfamily Protanthomyzinae (Diptera, Anthomyzidae) from Baltic amber

      , 1

      ZooKeys

      Pensoft Publishers

      Anthomyzid flies, adult morphology, Eocene, new extinct species, relationships, taxonomy, Tertiary

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          Abstract

          A new fossil species, Protanthomyza grimaldii sp. nov. ( Diptera , Anthomyzidae ), is described from Baltic amber (Eocene, 48–34 Ma) based on two (male and female) inclusions. It is the ninth species of the †genus Protanthomyza Hennig, 1965 and †subfamily Protanthomyzinae Roháček, 1998. Adult morphology of P. grimaldii sp. nov. revealed that the rich chaetotaxy of the thoracic pleuron, two anal veins and presence of the anteroventral process of the epandrium are plausibly shared by all species of Protanthomyza . Relationships of the new species, which belongs to a group lacking the ctenidial spine on the fore femur, are discussed.

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          Most cited references 10

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          Production and preservation of resins - past and present

          Amber is fossilised plant resin. It can be used to provide insights into the terrestrial conditions at the time the original resin was exuded. Amber research thus can inform many aspects of palaeontology, from the recovery and description of enclosed fossil organisms (biological inclusions) to attempts at reconstruction of past climates and environments. Here we focus on the resin itself, the conditions under which it may have been exuded, and its potential path to fossilisation, rather than on enclosed fossils. It is noteworthy that not all plants produce resin, and that not all resins can (nor do) become amber. Given the recent upsurge in the number of amber deposits described, it is time to re-examine ambers from a botanical perspective. Here we summarise the state of knowledge about resin production in modern ecosystems, and review the biological and ecological aspects of resin production in plants. We also present new observations on conifer-derived resin exudation, with a particular focus on araucarian conifer trees. We suggest that besides disease, insect attacks and traumatic wounding from fires and storms, other factors such as tree architecture and local soil conditions are significant in creating and preserving resin outpourings. We also examine the transformation of resin into amber (maturation), focusing on geological aspects of amber deposit formation and preservation. We present new evidence that expands previous understanding of amber deposit formation. Specific geological conditions such as anoxic burial are essential in the creation of amber from resin deposits. We show that in the past, the production of large amounts of resin could have been linked to global climate changes and environmental disruption. We then highlight where the gaps in our knowledge still remain and potential future research directions.
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            On the preparation and conservation of amber inclusions in artificial resin.

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              Fossil flies in Baltic amber–insights in the diversity of Tertiary Acalyptratae (Diptera, Schizophora), with new morphological characters and a key based on 1,000 collected inclusions

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Zookeys
                Zookeys
                2
                urn:lsid:arphahub.com:pub:45048D35-BB1D-5CE8-9668-537E44BD4C7E
                urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:91BD42D4-90F1-4B45-9350-EEF175B1727A
                ZooKeys
                Pensoft Publishers
                1313-2989
                1313-2970
                2020
                05 October 2020
                : 973
                : 1-15
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Silesian Museum, Nádražní okruh 31, CZ-746 01 Opava, Czech Republic Silesian Museum Opava Czech Republic
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Jindřich Roháček ( rohacek@ 123456szm.cz )

                Academic editor: Pavel Stoev

                Article
                51435
                10.3897/zookeys.973.51435
                7550391
                Jindřich Roháček

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Funding
                Ministry of Culture of the Czech Republic
                Categories
                Research Article
                Anthomyzidae
                Palaeontology
                Cenozoic
                Europe

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