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      NOD Mice Exocrinopathy: Towards a Neuroimmune Link

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          Abstract

          Sjögren’s syndrome (SS) is a chronic autoimmune disorder of exocrine glands characterized as an autoimmune exocrinopathy and more specifically as an autoimmune epithelitis. An impaired balance of neuroimmune interactions mediated by vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) in the target organ at early stages of disease is explored by means of the nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse model of SS. We have previously described a reduced salivary secretion and signaling upon VIP stimulation. The effect reflected a differential regulation of the neural isoform of nitric oxide synthase by calcium calmodulin kinase II and occurred prior to the appearance of detectable levels of cytokines in NOD glands. VIP acting on NOD macrophages treated with lipopolysaccharide promoted anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting nitric oxide synthase induction as well as IL-12 and TNF-α production, while stimulating IL-10. Here we present evidence on the ability of apoptotic acinar cells from submandibular glands of NOD mice to stimulate nitric oxide in both peritoneal and glandular macrophage pools to a similar extent as lipopolysaccharide + IFN-γ. VIP was not effective to prevent nitrite accumulation and modestly increased IL-10 levels in macrophages coincubated with acinar cells. An enhanced nitrite response of NOD glandular macrophages in basal and stimulated conditions compared to peritoneal cells is also shown.

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          Most cited references 15

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          The phosphatidylserine receptor: a crucial molecular switch?

          The uptake and removal of necrotic or lysed cells involves inflammation and an immune response, due in part to processes that involve members of the collectin family, surface calreticulin and CD91. Clearance of apoptotic cells, by contrast, does not induce either inflammation or immunity. Could the phosphatidylserine receptor be the molecular switch that determines what the outcome will be?
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            VIP-PACAP system in immunity: new insights for multitarget therapy.

            Our research about VIP/PACAP and the immune system goes back to 1990 when our group described the expression of VIP on lymphocytes for the first time. Since this year, using three models of disease, septic shock, rheumathoid arthritis, and Crohn's disease, we are trying to contribute with new pieces to the puzzle of immunity to approach the use of VIP/PACAP system as a therapeutic agent. In 1999 we established that the first step in the beneficial effect of the VIP/PACAP system exerts consists in its potent anti-inflammatory action. Thus, VIP and PACAP inhibit the expression and release of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, and enhance the production of the anti-inflammatory factors. These effects were reported both in vitro and in vivo, are mediated by the presence of PAC1, VPAC1, and VPAC2 receptors, in the three models of diseases used. The next step was that the system favors Th2 responses versus Th1 contributing to the remission of illness as rheumatoid arthritis or Crohn's disease by blocking the autoimmune component of these diseases. Because it appears that inflammatory processes requires more than blockade of a single mediator, new therapies blocking several components of both the infection- and the autoimmunity-induced inflammation cascades should be an interesting focus of attention. In this sense, at present we are trying to dissect new aspects of the potential therapeutic of the VIP/PACAP system in the control of CC and CXC chemokine and their receptors, coagulation factors, adhesion molecules, acute phase proteins, and osteoclastogenesis mediators as well as in the modulation of the expression of Toll-like receptors. Our more recent data open a hopeful door for the therapeutic use of VIP/PACAP in humans.
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              Effect of human vasoactive intestinal peptide gene transfer in a murine model of Sjogren's syndrome.

              Sjögren's syndrome (SS), an autoimmune exocrinopathy mainly affecting lachrymal and salivary glands, results in ocular and oral dryness (keratoconjunctivitis sicca and xerostomia). The aetiology and pathogenesis are largely unknown; currently, only palliative treatment is available. To determine whether gene transfer of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), based on its immunomodulatory properties, might be useful in the management of SS. A recombinant serotype 2 adeno-associated virus encoding the human VIP transgene (rAAV2hVIP) was constructed and its efficacy tested in the female non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse model for SS after retrograde instillation in submandibular glands (SMGs). 10(10) particles/gland of rAAV2hVIP or rAAV2LacZ (encoding beta-galactosidase; control vector) were administered at 8 weeks of age (before sialadenitis onset). Salivary flow rates were determined before vector delivery and at time of death (16 weeks). After death, saliva, serum, and SMGs were harvested. Salivary output, inflammatory infiltrates (focus scores), VIP protein expression, cytokine profile, and serum anti-VIP antibodies were analysed. rAAV2hVIP significantly improved the salivary flow, increased SMG and serum expression of VIP, and reduced SMG cytokines interleukin (IL) 2, IL10, IL12 (p70), and tumour necrosis factor alpha, and serum RANTES, compared with the control vector. No difference in focus scores or apoptotic rates was found; neutralising antibodies were not detected. Local delivery of rAAV2hVIP can have disease modifying and immunosuppressive effects in SMGs of the NOD mouse model of SS. The new strategy of employing VIP prophylactically may be useful for both understanding and managing the salivary component of SS.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                NIM
                Neuroimmunomodulation
                10.1159/issn.1021-7401
                Neuroimmunomodulation
                S. Karger AG
                978-3-8055-8463-0
                978-3-8055-8464-7
                1021-7401
                1423-0216
                2007
                December 2007
                05 December 2007
                : 14
                : 3-4
                : 175-181
                Affiliations
                Departamento de Química Biológica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, CONICET, Buenos Aires, Argentina
                Article
                110643 Neuroimmunomodulation 2007;14:175–181
                10.1159/000110643
                18073511
                © 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 2, References: 25, Pages: 7
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