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      Clinical and Angioarchitectural Features of Ruptured Dural Arteriovenous Fistulas

      , , ,

      World Neurosurgery

      Elsevier BV

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          Most cited references 21

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          Intracranial dural arteriovenous malformations: factors predisposing to an aggressive neurological course.

          The natural history of cranial dural arteriovenous malformations (AVM's) is highly variable. The authors present their clinical experience with 17 dural AVM's in adults, including 10 cases with an aggressive neurological course (strictly defined as hemorrhage or progressive focal neurological deficit other than ophthalmoplegia). Two of these 10 patients died prior to surgical intervention and a third was severely disabled by intracerebral hemorrhage. Six patients underwent surgical resection of their dural AVM, with preparatory embolization in two cases. One patient received embolization and radiation therapy without surgery. Six of the seven cases without an aggressive neurological course were treated conservatively, and the seventh patient underwent embolization of a cavernous sinus dural AVM because of worsening ophthalmoplegia. In order to clarify features associated with aggressive behavior, a comprehensive meta-analysis was performed on 360 additional dural AVM's reported in the literature with sufficiently detailed clinical and angiographic information. The location and angiographic features of 100 aggressive cases were compared to those of 277 benign cases. No location of dural AVM's was immune from aggressive neurological behavior; however, an aggressive neurological course was least often associated with cases involving the transverse-sigmoid sinuses and cavernous sinus and most often associated with cases at the tentorial incisura. Contralateral contribution to arterial supply and rate of shunting (high vs. low flow) did not correlate with aggressive neurological behavior as defined. Leptomeningeal venous drainage, variceal or aneurysmal venous dilations, and galenic drainage correlated significantly (p less than 0.05) with aggressive neurological presentation. The latter three angiographic features often coexisted in the same dural AVM. It is concluded that these features significantly increase the natural risk of dural AVM's, and warrant a more vigilant therapeutic strategy.
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            Intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulas: classification, imaging findings, and treatment.

             D. Gandhi (corresponding) ,  J. Chen,  M. Pearl (2012)
            Intracranial DAVFs are pathologic dural-based shunts and account for 10%-15% of all intracranial arteriovenous malformations. These malformations derive their arterial supply primarily from meningeal vessels, and the venous drainage is either via dural venous sinuses or through the cortical veins. DAVFs have a reported association with dural sinus thrombosis, venous hypertension, previous craniotomy, and trauma, though many lesions are idiopathic. The diagnosis is dependent on a high level of clinical suspicion and high-resolution imaging. Cross-sectional imaging techniques by using CT and MR imaging aid in the diagnosis, but conventional angiography remains the most accurate method for complete characterization and classification of DAVFs. The pattern of venous drainage observed on dynamic vascular imaging determines the type of DAVF and correlates with the severity of symptoms and the risk of hemorrhage.
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              Cerebral dural arteriovenous fistulas: clinical and angiographic correlation with a revised classification of venous drainage.

              To review the symptoms and progression of dural arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) and correlate the findings with various angiographic patterns. Patterns of venous drainage allowed classification of dural AVFs into five types: type I, located in the main sinus, with antegrade flow; type II, in the main sinus, with reflux into the sinus (IIa), cortical veins (IIb), or both (IIa + b); type III, with direct cortical venous drainage without venous ectasia; type IV, with direct cortical venous drainage with venous ectasia; and type V, with spinal venous drainage. Type I dural AVFs had a benign course. In type II, reflux into the sinus induced intracranial hypertension in 20% of cases, and reflux into cortical veins induced hemorrhage in 10%. Hemorrhage was present in 40% of cases of type III dural AVFs and 65% of type IV. Type V produced progressive myelopathy in 50% of cases. This classification provides useful data for determination of the risk with each dural AVF and enables decision-making about the appropriate therapy.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                World Neurosurgery
                World Neurosurgery
                Elsevier BV
                18788750
                March 2021
                March 2021
                : 147
                : e476-e481
                Article
                10.1016/j.wneu.2020.12.091
                © 2021

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