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Prevalence of Subgingival Staphylococcus at Periodontally Healthy and Diseased Sites

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      Abstract

      Staphylococci are considered members of the transient oral microbiota and are seldom isolated from the oral cavity. The aim of this study was to establish the prevalence of subgingival staphylococci in healthy and periodontal disease sites. Sterile endodontic paper points were used to isolate subgingival staphylococci in periodontally healthy and periodontally diseased sites in 30 adult subjects (n=540 sites). Staphylococcus spp were identified by an automated method and confirmed by conventional biochemical tests. All the samples were identified as coagulase-negative staphylococci. The results were analyzed using Mann-Whitney U, chi-square and Fisher's exact test at 5% significance level. A total of 86.7% of the subjects harbored these microorganisms in 11.7% of their periodontal sites. The most frequently isolated species was S. auricularis, which was isolated from 31.4% of the periodontal sites, followed by S. epidermidis, isolated from 21.4% of them. There was no statistically significant difference between the frequencies of these species isolated either from the healthy and the diseased sites (p>0.153). Although staphylococci are present in the subgingival environment and contribute to the pathogenic synergism involved in periodontal diseases, the results suggest that they do not participate directly in the pathogenesis of these diseases.

      Translated abstract

      Os estafilococos são considerados membros da microbiota oral transiente e são pouco isolados da cavidade oral. O objetivo deste estudo foi estabelecer a prevalência de estafilococos subgengivais em sítios saudáveis e com doença periodontal. Pontas endodônticas de papel absorvente estéreis foram usadas para isolar estafilococos subgengivais de sítios periodontais doentes e saudáveis, em 30 indivíduos adultos (n=540 sítios). Os Staphylococcus spp foram identificados por método automatizado e confirmados por provas bioquímicas convencionais. Todas as amostras foram identificadas como estafilococos coagulase-negativa. Os resultados foram analisados através dos testes de Mann-Whitney U, Qui-quadrado ou Exato de Fisher para um nível de significância de 5%. Um total de 86,7% dos indivíduos albergavam estes microrganismos em 11,7% de seus sítios periodontais. A espécie mais frequentemente isolada foi S. auricularis, a qual foi isolada em 31.4% dos sítios periodontais, seguida pela espécie S. epidermidis, isolada de 21.4% dos sítios. Não houve associação significativa na freqüência de isolamento das espécies, seja nos sitios periodontais saudáveis ou doentes (p>0.153). Embora os estafilococos estejam presentes no ambiente subgengival e contribuam para o sinergismo patogênico envolvido em doenças periodontais, sugere-se que eles não participem diretamente na patogênese destas doenças.

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      Most cited references 25

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      Antibiotic resistance patterns of coagulase-negative staphylococcus strains isolated from blood cultures of septicemic patients in Turkey.

       M Samasti,  F Koksal,  H Yaşar (2008)
      The aim of this study is to determine antibiotic resistance patterns and slime production characteristics of coagulase-negative Staphylococci (CoNS) caused nosocomial bacteremia. A total of 200 CoNS strains were isolated from blood samples of patients with true bacteremia who were hospitalized in intensive care units and in other departments of Istanbul University Cerrahpasa Medical Hospital between 1999 and 2006. Among 200 CoNS isolates, Staphylococcus epidermidis was the most prevalent species (87) followed by Staphylococcus haemolyticus (23), Staphylococcus hominis (19), Staphylococcus lugdunensis (18), Staphylococcus capitis (15), Staphylococcus xylosus (10), Staphylococcus warneri (8), Staphylococcus saprophyticus (5), Staphylococcus lentus (5), Staphylococcus simulans (4), Staphylococcus chromogenes (3), Staphylococcus cohnii (1), Staphylococcus schleiferi (1), and Staphylococcus auricularis (1). Resistance to methicillin was detected in 67.5% of CoNS isolates. Methicillin-resistant CoNS strains were determined to be more resistant to antibiotics than methicillin-susceptible CoNS strains. Resistance rates of methicillin-resistant and methicillin-susceptible CoNS strains to the antibacterial agents, respectively, were as follows: gentamicin 90% and 17%, erythromycin 80% and 37%, clindamycin 72% and 18%, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole 68% and 38%, ciprofloxacin 67% and 23%, tetracycline 60% and 45%, chloramphenicol 56% and 13% and fusidic acid 25% and 15%. None of the strains were resistant to vancomycin and teicoplanin. Slime production was detected in 86 of 200 CoNS strains. Resistance to methicillin was found in 81% of slime-positive and in 57% of slime-negative strains. Our results indicated that there is a high level of resistance to widely used agents in causative methicillin-resistant CoNS strains. However fusidic acid has the smallest resistance ratio, with the exception of glycopeptides. Additionally, most S. epidermidis strains were slime-positive, with statistically significant (p<0.001) association between methicillin resistance and slime production.
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        SALIVA VISCOSITY AND CALCULUS FORMATION IN MAN.

         H Schroeder (1964)
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          Diagnosis of Periodontal Disease

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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            [1 ] Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte Brazil
            [2 ] Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte Brazil
            [3 ] Centro de Patologia Clínica Brazil
            Contributors
            Role: ND
            Role: ND
            Role: ND
            Role: ND
            Role: ND
            Role: ND
            Journal
            bdj
            Brazilian Dental Journal
            Braz. Dent. J.
            Fundação Odontológica de Ribeirão Preto (Ribeirão Preto )
            1806-4760
            2014
            : 25
            : 4
            : 271-276
            S0103-64402014000400271
            10.1590/0103-6440201302285

            http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

            Product
            Product Information: SciELO Brazil
            Categories
            DENTISTRY, ORAL SURGERY & MEDICINE

            Dentistry

            staphylococcus, periodontal diseases, biofilms

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